Telecom Dictionary - Definitions of terms
Transceiver - Definition and Use
Transceiver - 1. A device that performs, within one chassis, both transmitting and receiving functions. 2. In military communications, the combination of transmitting and receiving equipment that (a) is in a common housing, (b) usually is designed for portable or mobile use, (c) uses common circuit components for both transmitting and receiving, and (d) provides half-duplex operation.
A transceiver is a generic term describing a device that can both transmits and receives data. In IEEE 802 local area network (LAN) standards, a transceiver consists of a transmitter, receiver, power converter, and, for CSMA/CD LANs, collision detector and jabber detector capabilities. The transmitter receives signals from an attached terminal's network interface card (NIC) and transmits them to the coaxial cable or other LAN medium. The receiver receives signals from the medium and transmits them via the transceiver cable and NIC to the attached terminal. The jabber detector is a timer circuit that protects the LAN from a continuously transmitting terminal.
The term usually applies to wireless communications devices such as cellular telephones, cordless telephone sets, handheld two-way radios, and mobile two-way radios. Occasionally the term is used in reference to transmitter/receiver devices in cable or optical fiber systems.
In a radio transceiver, the receiver is silenced while transmitting. An electronic switch allows the transmitter and receiver to be connected to the same antenna, and prevents the transmitter output from damaging the receiver. With a transceiver of this kind, it is impossible to receive signals while transmitting. This mode is called half duplex. Transmission and reception often, but not always, are done on the same frequency.
Some transceivers are designed to allow reception of signals during transmission periods. This mode is known as full duplex, and requires that the transmitter and receiver operate on substantially different frequencies so the transmitted signal does not interfere with reception. Cellular and cordless telephone sets use this mode. satellite communications networks often employ full-duplex transceivers at the surface-based subscriber points. The transmitted signal (transceiver-to-satellite) is called the uplink, and the received signal (satellite-to-transceiver) is called the downlink.
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