Telecom Dictionary - Definitions of terms
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A - A is the abbreviation for atto (10-18). See metric system.
A-Condition - An A-Condition, in a start-stop teletypewriter system, the significant condition of the signal element that immediately precedes a character signal or block signal and prepares the receiving equipment for the reception of the code elements.
A-D - Abbreviation for analog-to-digital. See analog transmission. - Transmission of a continuously varying signal as opposed to transmission of a discretely varying signal.
A-law - See a-law algorithm. - A standard compression algorithm, used in digital communications systems of the European digital hierarchy, to optimize, i.e., modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal for digitizing. Note: The wide dynamic range of speech does not lend itself well to efficient linear digital encoding . A-law encoding effectively reduces the dynamic range of the signal, thereby increasing the coding efficiency and resulting in a signal-to- distortion ratio that is superior to that obtained by linear encoding for a given number of bits.
Abandoned Call - A call in which the call originator disconnects or cancels the call after a connection has been made, but before the call is established.
Abandonment - Network replacement of a connect signal with an on-hook signal (network) prior to receiving a CI (customer installation) answer signal; abandonment is the only way to end an unanswered call attempt.
Abbreviated Address - An abbreviated Address is an address that has fewer characters than the full address, usually for special communications and other services or for certain users. Note: Examples of abbreviated addresses are (a) a four-digit telephone number for a user calling another user connected to the same switching exchange, and (b) message addresses that have only the addressee name and station code or number.
Abbreviated Address Calling - Calling that enables a user to employ an address having fewer characters than the full address when initiating a call. Note: Communications network users may be allowed to designate a given number of abbreviated address codes. The allocation of the abbreviated address codes to a destination or group of destinations may be changed as required, by means of a suitable procedure.
Abbreviated Dialing - A telephone service feature that (a) permits the user to dial fewer digits to access a network than are required under the nominal numbering plan, and (b) is limited to a subscriber-selected set of frequently dialed numbers. Synonym speed dialing.
Abort - 1. In a computer or data transmission system, to terminate, usually in a controlled manner, a processing activity because it is impossible or undesirable for the activity to proceed. 2. In data transmission, a function invoked by a sending station to cause the recipient to discard or ignore all bit sequences transmitted by the sender since the preceding flag sequence.
Abrasive - Any of a number of hard materials, such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and diamond, that are powdered and carefully graded according to particle size, and used to shape and/or finish optical elements, including the end faces of optical fibers and connectors. Note: For finishing the end faces of optical fiber connectors, abrasive particles are adhered to a substrate of plastic film, in a fashion after that of sandpaper. The film is in turn supported by a hard, flat plate. The connector is supported by a fixture that holds it securely in the proper position for finishing. The grinding motion may be performed manually or by a machine.
Absolute Address - In communications, computer, and data processing systems, an address that directly identifies a storage location without the use of an intermediate reference, e.g., a base address or a relative address.
Absolute Delay - 1. The time interval or phase difference between transmission and reception of a signal. 2. The total time between the instant a bit enters the network and the instant a corresponding bit exists the network.
Absolute Gain - 1. Of an antenna, for a given direction and polarization, the ratio of (a) the power that would be required at the input of an ideal isotropic radiator to (b) the power actually supplied to the given antenna, to produce the same radiation intensity in the far-field region. Note 1: If no direction is given, the absolute gain of an antenna corresponds to the direction of maximum effective radiated power. Note 2: Absolute gain is usually expressed in dB. Synonym isotropic gain. 2. Of a device, the ratio of (a) the signal level at the output of the device to (b) that of its input under a specified set of operating conditions. Note 1: Examples of absolute gain are no-load gain, full-load gain, and small-signal gain. Note 2: Absolute gain is usually expressed in dB.
Absolute Temperature - See thermodynamic temperature. - A measure, in kelvins (K), proportional to the thermal energy of a given body at equilibrium. Note 1: A temperature of 0 K is called "absolute zero," and coincides with the minimum molecular activity (i.e., thermal energy) of matter. Note 2: Thermodynamic temperature was formerly called "absolute temperature." Note 3: In practice, the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) serves as the basis for high-accuracy temperature measurements in science and technology.
Absorptance - The ratio of the luminous flux or absorbed radiant flux to the incident flux.
Absorption - In the transmission of electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signals, the conversion of the transmitted energy into another form, usually thermal. Note 1: Absorption is one cause of signal attenuation . Note 2: The conversion takes place as a result of interaction between the incident energy and the material medium, at the molecular or atomic level.
Absorption Band - A spectral region in which the absorption coefficient reaches a relative maximum, by virtue of the physical properties of the matter in which the absorption process takes place.
Absorption Coefficient - A measure of the attenuation caused by absorption of energy that results from its passage through a medium. Note 1: Absorption coefficients are usually expressed in units of reciprocal distance. Note 2: The sum of the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient is the attenuation coefficient.
Absorption Index - 1. A measure of the attenuation caused by absorption of energy per unit of distance that occurs in an electromagnetic wave of given wavelength propagating in a material medium of given refractive index. Note: The value of the absorption index K' is given by the relation where K is the absorption coefficient, is the wavelength in vacuum, and n is the refractive index of the absorptive material medium. [After 2196] 2. The functional relationship between the Sun angle--at any latitude and local time--and the ionospheric absorption.
Absorption Loss - That part of the transmission loss caused by the dissipation or conversion of electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic energy into other forms of energy as a result of its interaction with a material medium.
Absorption Modulation - Amplitude modulation of the output of a radio transmitter by means of a variable-impedance circuit that is caused to absorb carrier power in accordance with the modulating wave.
Absorption Peak - 1. The wavelength or frequency at which a particular substance absorbs the most power (or, where the attenuation of the propagated signal is the greatest) whenever the substance is bombarded or irradiated with audio, electromagnetic, or light waves. Note: Whenever a material is thus bombarded, there is reflection, transmission through the material, and absorption within the material. In the case of air, O2 has multiple absorption peaks. See figure. 2. In optical communications media, the specific wavelength at which a particular impurity absorbs the most power, i.e., causes a maximum attenuation of propagated lightwaves. Note: Absorption by these impurities at other wavelengths is less than that of the absorption peak. Glass quartz silica, and plastics used in optical fibers, slab dielectric waveguides, optical integrated circuits (OICs), and similar media, usually display absorption peaks. Impurities that cause absorption peaks include copper, iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, and hydroxyl ions.
Absorptivity - Of a material propagation medium, absorptance per unit path length.
Abstraction - 1. Broadly, the use of specialized software, such as an application programming interface (API), as a means of shielding software from device dependencies or the complexities of underlying software. Note: For instance, hardware abstraction enables programs to focus on a task, such as communications, instead of on individual differences between communications devices. 2. In object-oriented programming, the process of reducing an object to its essence so that only the necessary elements are represented. Abstraction defines an object in terms of its properties (attributes), behaviors (functionality), and interface (means of communicating with other objects).
Abstract Syntax - In open systems architecture, the specification of application-layer data or application-protocol control information by using notation rules that are independent of the encoding technique used to represent the information.
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) - A standard, flexible method that (a) describes data structures for representing, encoding, transmitting, and decoding data, (b) provides a set of formal rules for describing the structure of objects independent of machine-specific encoding techniques, (c) is a formal network-management Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) language that uses human-readable notation and a compact, encoded representation of the same information used in communications protocols, and (d) is a precise, formal notation that removes ambiguities.
AC - Abbreviation for alternating current.
AC Current - In electricity, alternating current (AC) occurs when charge carriers in a conductor or semiconductor periodically reverse their direction of movement. Household utility current in most countries is AC with a frequency of 60 hertz (60 complete cycles per second), although in some countries it is 50 Hz. The radio-frequency (RF) current in antennas and transmission lines is another example of AC.
An AC waveform can be sinusoidal, square, or sawtooth-shaped. Some AC waveforms are irregular or complicated. An example of sine-wave AC is common household utility current (in the ideal case). Square or sawtooth waves are produced by certain types of electronic oscillators, and by a low-end uninterruptible power supply (UPS) when it is operating from its battery. Irregular AC waves are produced by audio amplifiers that deal with analog voice signals and/or music.
The voltage of an AC power source can be easily changed by means of a power transformer. This allows the voltage to be stepped up (increased) for transmission and distribution. High-voltage transmission is more efficient than low-voltage transmission over long distances, because the loss caused by conductor resistance decreases as the voltage increases.
The voltage of an AC power source changes from instant to instant in time. The effective voltage of an AC utility power source is usually considered to be the DC voltage that would produce the same power dissipation as heat assuming a pure resistance. The effective voltage for a sine wave is not the same as the peak voltage. To obtain effective voltage from peak voltage, multiply by 0.707. To obtain peak voltage from effective voltage, multiply by 1.414. For example, if an AC power source has an effective voltage of 117 V, typical of a household in the United States, the peak voltage is 165 V.
Accept -In data transmission, an Accept is the condition assumed by a primary or secondary station upon correct receipt of a frame for processing.
Acceptance - The condition that exists when a system or functional unit meets the specified performance and security requirements.
Access - 1. The ability and means necessary to store data in, to retrieve data from, to communicate with, or to make use of any resource of a system. 2. To obtain the use of a resource. 3. (COMSEC) [The] capability and opportunity to gain detailed knowledge of or to alter information or material. 4. (AIS) [The] ability and means to communicate with (i.e., input to or receive output from), or otherwise make use of any information, resource, or component in an AIS. Note [for 3 and 4]: An individual does not have "access" if the proper authority or a physical, technical, or procedural measure prevents him/her from obtaining knowledge or having an opportunity to alter information, material, resources, or components. 5. An assigned portion of system resources for one data stream of user communications or signaling. 6. [An] opportunity to make use of an information-system (IS) resource.
Access Arrangement - An arrangement to transport access traffic between an end office and an IC POT (interexchange carrier point of termination) and may be either direct routed, tandem routed, or a combination of direct and tandem routed. (In the case of direct routed only, the access arrangement and access connection are synonymous.)
Acceptance Angle - In fiber optics, half the vertex angle of that cone within which optical power may be coupled into bound modes of an optical fiber. Note 1: The axis of the cone is collinear with the fiber axis, the vertex of the cone is on the fiber end-face, and the base of the cone faces the optical power source. Note 2: The acceptance angle is measured with respect to the fiber axis. Note 3: Rays entering an optical fiber at angles greater than the acceptance angle are coupled into unbound modes.
Acceptance Cone - In fiber optics, the cone within which optical power may be coupled into the bound modes of an optical fiber. Note: The acceptance cone is derived by rotating the acceptance angle about the fiber axis.
Acceptance Criterion - See acceptance test. A test of a system or functional unit to ensure that contractual requirements are met. Note: An acceptance test may be performed at the factory or user premises by the user, vendor, or a third party.
Acceptance Limit (AL) - The bound on performance that is allowed at service turnup or interexchange carrier (IC) acceptance of a circuit or connection, or when corrective action is taken to restore a parameter after an immediate action limit (IAL) failure. Performance as measured by a parameter is satisfactory if the value of the parameter is equal to or better than the limit.
Acceptance Pattern - 1. Of an antenna, for a given plane, a distribution plot of the off-axis power relative to the on-axis power as a function of angle or position. Note: The acceptance pattern is the equivalent of a horizontal or vertical antenna pattern. 2. Of an optical fiber or fiber bundle, a curve of total transmitted power plotted against the launch angle.
Acceptance Test - A test of a system or functional unit to ensure that contractual requirements are met. Note: An acceptance test may be performed at the factory or user premises by the user, vendor, or a third party.
Acceptance Testing - Operating and testing of a communication system, subsystem, or component, to ensure that the specified performance characteristics have been met.
Acceptance Trial - A trial carried out by nominated representatives of the eventual military users of the weapon or equipment to determine if the specified performance and characteristics have been met.
Accepted Interference - Interference at a higher level than that defined as permissible interference and which has been agreed upon between two or more administrations without prejudice to other administrations.
Access - 1. The ability and means necessary to store data in, to retrieve data from, to communicate with, or to make use of any resource of a system. 2. To obtain the use of a resource. 3. (COMSEC) [The] capability and opportunity to gain detailed knowledge of or to alter information or material. [NIS] 4. (AIS) [The] ability and means to communicate with (i.e., input to or receive output from), or otherwise make use of any information, resource, or component in an AIS. Note [for 3 and 4]: An individual does not have "access" if the proper authority or a physical, technical, or procedural measure prevents him/her from obtaining knowledge or having an opportunity to alter information, material, resources, or components. [NIS] 5. An assigned portion of system resources for one data stream of user communications or signaling. 6. [An] opportunity to make use of an information-system (IS) resource.
Access is commonly defined as the process used for communication between your computer and the Internet. Access is simply being able to get to what you need. Data access is being able to get to (usually having permission to use) particular data on a computer. Web access means having a connection to the World Wide Web through an access provider or an online service provider such as America Online.
For data access, access is usually specified as read-only access and read/write access.
Access Attempt - The process by which one or more users interact with a telecommunications system to enable initiation of user information transfer. Note: An access attempt begins with an issuance of an access request by an access originator. An access attempt ends either in successful access or in access failure.
Access Barred Signal - In a communications system, a signal sent in the backward direction to indicate that a call will not be completed because of a call-originator or a call-receiver facility requirement. Note: An access barred signal may occur for many reasons, such as the failure of a closed user group validation check on an incoming calls-barred facility.
Access Category - A class to which a user, such as a person, program, process, or equipment, of a system may be assigned, based on the resources each user is authorized to use.
Access Channel - A designated part of the information transfer capability having specified characteristics, provided at the user-network interface.
Access Charge - 1. A fee charged by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local exchange networks. 2. A charge made by a local exchange carrier for use of its local exchange facilities for a purpose such as the origination or termination of traffic that is carried to or from a distant exchange by an interexchange carrier.
Access Code - 1. The preliminary digits that a user must dial to be connected to a particular outgoing trunk group or line. 2. A uniform code assigned by the telephone company to an individual customer in the form 101xx and 950-xx.
Access Connection - In ISDN technology, a connection (using either the B-Channel or a logical link on the D-Channel) established between the user equipment and a packet-mode handier function, over which packet-mode calls (incoming and outgoing) are established.
Access Contention - In ISDN applications, synonym contention. - 1. A condition that arises when two or more data stations attempt to transmit at the same time over a shared channel, or when two data stations attempt to transmit at the same time in two-way alternate communication. Note: A contention can occur in data communications when no station is designated a master station. In contention, each station must monitor the signals and wait for a quiescent condition before initiating a bid for master status. 2. Competition by users of a system for use of the same facility at the same time.
Access Control - 1. A service feature or technique used to permit or deny use of the components of a communication system. 2. A technique used to define or restrict the rights of individuals or application programs to obtain data from, or place data onto, a storage device. 3. The definition or restriction of the rights of individuals or application programs to obtain data from, or place data into, a storage device. 4. Limiting access to information system resources only to authorized users, programs, processes, or other systems.5. That function performed by the resource controller that allocates system resources to satisfy user requests.
Access Control List - 1. In security, a list of entities, together with their access rights, that are authorized to access a resource. 2. [A] mechanism implementing discretionary and/or mandatory access control between subjects and objects.
Access Control Mechanism - 1. In security, a hardware, software, or firmware feature, operating procedure, or management procedure that (a) permits authorized access to a system, such as a communications, computer, and data processing system, (b) prevents unauthorized access to the system, and (c) is considered to have failed when unauthorized access is permitted or when authorized access is prevented. 2. [A] Security safeguard designed to detect and deny unauthorized access and permit authorized access in an information system (IS).
Access Control Message - A message that is a user request, a resource controller response, or a request/response between resource controllers.
Access Coupler - Deprecated term. See directional coupler.
Access Denial - 1. Access failure caused by the issuing of a system blocking signal by a communications system that does not have a call-originator camp-on feature. 2. Access failure caused by exceeding the maximum access time and nominal system access time fraction during an access attempt. Synonym system blocking.
Access-Denial Time - The time between the start of an access attempt and access failure caused by access denial, i.e., system blocking. Note: Access denial times are measured only on access attempts that result in access denial.
Access Digit - In automatic direct outward telephone dialing, a digit, often a 1, or a 9, that (a) enables access to an outside facility, e.g., a PBX or local exchange, and (b) is prefixed to the specific number being dialed. Note 1: Throughout the United States, an access digit, usually 1, must be prefixed to an area code before dialing the area code and the specific number to which a connection is desired. Note 2: The access digit 9 is often used to establish a connection between a PBX and a local exchange.
Access Failure - In a communications system, an unsuccessful access that results in termination of an access attempt in any manner other than initiation of user information transfer between the intended source and destination (sink) within the specified maximum access time. Note: Access failure can be the result of access denial, access outage, user blocking, or incorrect access.
Access Function - A set of processes in a network that provides for interaction between the user and a network.
Access Group - A group of one or more stations having identical rights to use the available resources on a PBX, network or host computer.
Access Level - 1. In security, the level of authority required from an entity to access a protected resource. Note: An example of access level is the authority to access information at a particular security level. 2. [The] hierarchical portion of the security level used to identify sensitivity of information-system (IS) data and the clearance or authorization of users. Access level, in conjunction with the nonhierarchical categories, forms the sensitivity label of an object.
Access Line - 1. A transmission path between end user terminal equipment and a switching center. 2. A channel between an end user's network interface and local end office. Synonym [loosely] loop. 3. A communications facility extending from a customer's premises to a serving central office comprising a subscriber line and, if necessary, a trunk facility, e.g., a WATS access line, TWX access line.
Access Lines - A telephone line running from the telephone company’s central office to a point on your property.
Access Line Equivalents - A representation of the number of access lines that a system could hold.
Access List - 1. In information systems (IS), a compilation of users, programs, or processes and the access levels and types to which each is authorized. 2. In COMSEC, a roster of persons authorized admittance to a controlled area.
Access Loop - See attendant access loop.
Access Node - In switching systems, the point where user traffic enters and exits a communications network. Note: Access node operations may include various operations, such as protocol conversion and code conversion.
Access Originator - The functional entity responsible for initiating a particular access attempt. Note: An access attempt can be initiated by a source user, a destination user, or the telecommunications system.
Access Path - The steps required to obtain the use of a system or device. Note: Examples of access paths are (a) the operations required of a database management system to obtain access to a database and (b) the sequence of steps required to reach a file.
Access Period - In security, a segment of time, generally expressed in days or weeks, during which specified access rights prevail.
Access Permission - All of a subject's access rights with respect to some object.
Access Phase - In an information-transfer transaction, the phase during which an access attempt is made. Note: The access phase is the first phase of an information-transfer transaction.
Access Point - 1. A point where connections may be made for testing or using particular communications circuits. 2. In telephony, a junction point in outside plant consisting of a splice at a junction between a branch feeder cable and distribution cables.
Access Profile - 1. In security, a profile that associates each user with a list of protected objects that the user may access. 2. [An itemization that] associates each user with a list of protected objects the user may access.
Access Provider - 1. An organization that provides users with access to a computer network. Any organization that arranges for an individual or an organization to have access to the Internet. Access providers are generally divided into two classes: Internet access providers (ISPs) and online service providers (OSPs). ISPs can be local businesses that pay for a high-speed connection to one of the companies (such as AT&T, Sprint, or MCI in the U.S.) that are part of the Internet. They can also be national or international companies that have their own networks (such as AT&T's WorldNet or IBM's Global Services). OSPs, sometimes just called "online services," also have their own networks but provide additional information services not available to non-subscribers. America Online is the most successful example of an OSP. 2. A party responsible for traffic originating and terminating in jurisdictional areas defined by regulatory agencies.
Access Request - 1. A control message issued by an access originator for the purpose of initiating an access attempt. 2. A signal sent to a network for the purpose of initiating the establishment of a network connection. In this definition, a signal may take the form of a message.
Access Right - Permission for a subject to access a particular object for a specific type of operation. Note: An example of an access right is the permission for a process to read a file but not write to it.
Access Service Area - A geographic area established for the provisioning and administration of telecommunications service. An access service area encompasses one or more exchanges, which are grouped in access service areas to serve common social, economic, and other purposes. Contrast with LATA.
Access System - In communications, computer, and data processing systems, a program that (a) allows an operator to call up different parts of the program package and (b) usually allows functions to be selected from menus in the same way as other commands. Note: An example of an access system is the program supplied with a common spreadsheet program that (a) allows the computer to shift between the spreadsheet program and a graph-printing facility and (b) provides access to various support functions.
Access Tandem - 1. A telephone company or centralized equal access provider switching system that provides a concentration and distribution function for originating or terminating traffic between end offices and a customer-designated premises. 2. An exchange carrier switching system that provides a traffic concentration and distribution function for inter-LATA traffic originating/terminating within a LATA.
Access Time - 1. In a telecommunication system, the elapsed time between the start of an access attempt and successful access. Note: Access time values are measured only on access attempts that result in successful access. 2. In a computer, the time interval between the instant at which an instruction control unit initiates a call for data and the instant at which delivery of the data is completed. 3. The time interval between the instant at which storage of data is requested and the instant at which storage is started. 4. In magnetic disk devices, the time for the access arm to reach the desired track and the delay for the rotation of the disk to bring the required sector under the read-write mechanism.
Access Type - 1. In computer security, a type of operation specified by an access right. Note: Examples of access type are "read," "write," "execute," "append," "modify," "delete," and "create." [2382-pt.8] 2. [The] privilege to perform action on an object. Read, write, execute, append modify, delete, and create are examples of access types.
Access Unit - See medium access unit (MAU).
Access Unit Interface - Synonym attachment unit interface.
Acceptability - Section 508, an amendment to the United States Workforce Rehabilitation Act of 1973, is a federal law mandating that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the federal government be accessible to people with disabilities. Technology is deemed to be "accessible" if it can be used as effectively by people with disabilities as by those without. To demonstrate that a product or Web service is in compliance with Section 508, the creator completes a Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT), an "informational tool" that describes exactly how the product or service does or does not meet Section 508 standards. The completed VPAT gets posted on the creator's Web site to provide government officials and consumers with access to the information.
The scope of Section 508 is limited to the federal sector. It includes binding, enforceable standards, as well as compliance reporting requirements and a complaint procedure. Section 508 doesn't apply to the private sector, nor does it impose requirements on the recipients of federal funding. Because the federal government has so much purchasing power, however, it is hoped that Section 508 will encourage the dev elopement of products and Web-based services that meet accessibility standards. To that end, the United Stated Department of Education now requires states funded by the Assitive Technology Act State Grant program (a grant program that supports consumer-driven state projects to improve access to assistive technology devices and services) to comply with Section 508.
Accessibility policies like Section 508 vary from country to country, but most countries, including the European Union (EU), have adopted standards based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines of the World Wide Web Consortium. Section 508 is based on W3C Priority 1 checkpoints.
Accountability - 1. The property that ensures that the actions of an individual or an institution may be traced uniquely to that individual or institution. 2. In information systems (IS), the process of tracing IS activities to a responsible source.3. In COMSEC, the principle that an individual is entrusted to safeguard and control equipment, keying material, and information and is answerable to proper authority for the loss or misuse of that equipment or information.
Accounting Management - In network management, a set of functions that (a) enables network service use to be measured and the costs for such use to be determined and (b) includes all the resources consumed, the facilities used to collect accounting data, the facilities used to set billing parameters for the services used by customers, maintenance of the data bases used for billing purposes, and the preparation of resource usage and billing reports.
Accreditation - 1. In computer security, the authorization and approval--granted by a designated authority to a data processing system, computer network, organization, or individual--to process sensitive information or data. 2. Formal declaration by a designated approving authority that an information system (IS) is approved to operate in a particular security mode using a prescribed set of safeguards at an acceptable level of risk.
Accrediting Authority - Synonym designated approving authority.
Accumulator - 1. A register in which one operand can be stored and subsequently replaced by the result of an arithmetic or logic operation. 2. A storage register. 3. A storage battery.
Accuracy - The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its actual or specified value.
AC Current - Alternating Current.
ACD - Automatic Call Distributor
AC-DC Ringing - Telephone ringing that makes use of both ac and dc voltages and currents. Note: An alternating current may be used to operate a ringer and direct current to aid the relay action that stops the ringing when the called telephone is answered.
Achromat - A usually two-element lens that is corrected to bring two specified or distinct wavelengths to a common focal point. Note 1: The term "achromatic" literally means "without color." This is not strictly true, however. Early lenses consisted of only a single element, and therefore could bring only a single wavelength to a given focal point; i.e., they suffered from what is termed "chromatic aberration." The invention of lenses with two elements meant that two distinct wavelengths could be brought to a common focus. This represented a vast improvement over the single-element lens; hence the designation "achromat(ic)." Note 2: The residual chromatic aberration manifested in the image produced by an achromat (and other multi-element lenses) is usually referred to as the "secondary spectrum." Synonyms achromatic doublet, achromatic lens.
Achromatic Double - Synonym achromat.
Achromatic Doublet - Synonym achromat.
Achromatic Lens - Synonym achromat.
ACK - Abbreviation for acknowledge character.
Acknowledge Character (ACK): A transmission control character transmitted by the receiving station as an affirmative response to the sending station. Note: An acknowledge character may also be used as an accuracy control character.
Acknowledgement - 1. A response sent by a receiver to indicate successful receipt of a transmission. Note: An example of an acknowledgement is a protocol data unit, or element thereof, between peer entities, to indicate the status of data units that have been successfully received. 2. A message from the addressee informing the originator that the originator's communication has been received and understood.
Acknowledgement Delay Period - Synonym [loosely] sliding window.
A-Condition - In a start-stop teletypewriter system, the significant condition of the signal element that immediately precedes a character signal or block signal and prepares the receiving equipment for the reception of the code elements.
Acoustic Coupler - 1. An interface device for coupling electrical signals by acoustical means--usually into and out of a telephone instrument. An acoustic coupler is a hardware device that enables a modem (a device that converts signals from analog to digital and from digital back to analog) to connect to a voice circuit. A handset adapter is used to receive modem tones through the handset's mouthpiece, and the earpiece is used to transmit these tones to the modem. 2. A terminal device used to link data terminals and radio sets with the telephone network. Note: The link is achieved through acoustic (sound) signals rather than through direct electrical connection.
Acoustic Delay Line - A device that introduces a delay in the propagation of an electrical signal by (a) employing a transducer to convert the signal into an acoustic wave, (b) propagating the acoustic wave through a medium such as a column of mercury or a carbon or ferrite rod, and (c) by means of another transducer, converting the acoustic wave back to an electrical signal. Note: An acoustic delay line may be used for temporary storage of information, e.g., a digital data stream.
Acoustic Noise - 1. An undesired audible disturbance in the audio frequency range. 2. Any undesired acoustic wave or signal, or undesired component of a desired acoustic signal, whether or not audible to the human ear; e.g., interference accompanying a sonar echo.
Acoustics - The branch of science and technology that is devoted to the production, transmission, control, processing, transformation, reception, and effects of sound, longitudinal waves, particularly as vibration, pressure, or elastic waves and shock phenomena in material media.
Acoustic Wave - (See Sound Wave) A longitudinal wave that (a) consists of a sequence of pressure pulses or elastic displacements of the material, whether gas, liquid, or solid, in which the wave propagates, (b) in gases, consists of a sequence of compressions (dense gas) and rarefactions (less dense gas) that travel through the gas, (c) in liquids, consists of a sequence of combined elastic deformation and compression waves that travel though the liquid, and (d) in solids, consists of a sequence of elastic compression and expansion waves that travel though the solid. Note 1: The speed of an acoustic wave in a material medium is determined by the temperature, pressure, and elastic properties of the medium. In air, acoustic waves propagate at 332 m/s (1087 ft/s) at 0°C, at sea level. In air, sound-wave speed increases approximately 0.6 m/s (2 ft/s) for each kelvin above 0°C. Note 2: Acoustic waves audible to the normal human ear are termed sound waves.
Acousto-Optic Effect - A variation of the refractive index of a material caused by interaction with acoustic energy in the form of a wave or pulse. Note: The acousto-optic effect is used in devices that modulate or deflect light.
Acousto-Optics - The discipline devoted to the interactions between acoustic waves and light waves in a material medium. Note: Acoustic waves can be made to modulate, deflect, and/or focus light waves by causing a variation in the refractive index of the medium.
Acquisition - 1. In satellite communications, the process of locking tracking equipment on a signal from a communications satellite. 2. The process of achieving synchronization. 3. In servo systems, the process of entering the boundary conditions that will allow the loop to capture the signal and achieve lock-on.
Acquisition and Tracking Orderwire: See ATOW.
Acquisition Time - 1. In a communications system, the time interval required to attain synchronism. 2. In satellite control communications, the time interval required for locking tracking equipment on a signal from a communications satellite.
ACR - Abbreviation for alternate carrier routing and also for anonymous call rejection.
Active Device - A device that requires a source of energy for its operation and has an output that is a function of present and past input signals. Note: Examples of active devices include controlled power supplies, transistors, LEDs, amplifiers, and transmitters.
Active Key State - A condition of readiness for a key to be used to secure information from the originator, and to process received secure information.
Active Laser Medium - Within a laser, the material that emits coherent radiation or exhibits gain as the result of electronic or molecular transitions to a lower energy state or states, from a higher energy state or states to which it had been previously stimulated. Note: Examples of active laser media include certain crystals, gases, glasses, liquids, and semiconductors. Synonym laser medium.
Active Satellite - 1. A satellite carrying a station intended to transmit or retransmit radio communication signals. Note: An active satellite may perform signal processing functions such as amplification, regeneration, frequency translation, and link switching, to make the signals suitable for retransmission. 2. An Earth satellite carrying a station intended to transmit or re-transmit radio communication signals.
Active Sensor - 1. A detection device that requires input energy from a source other than that which is being sensed. Note: An example of an active sensor is a photoconductive cell. 2. In surveillance, a detection device that emits energy capable of being detected by itself. Note: An example of an active sensor is a measuring instrument that generates a signal, transmits it to a target, and receives a reflected signal from the target. Information concerning the target is obtained by comparison of the received signal with the transmitted signal. 3. A measuring instrument in the Earth exploration-satellite service or in the space research service by means of which information is obtained by transmission and reception of radio waves.
Active Signaling Link - A signaling link that has successfully completed the initial alignment procedures and carries (or is ready to carry) signaling traffic.
Active Star - See star coupler, multiport repeater.
Active Threat - Any threat of a deliberate unauthorized change to the state of a data processing system. Note: For example, an active threat that would result in modification of messages, insertion of spurious messages, masquerade, or denial of service.
Active Video Frame Identification - The process of comparing each output video frame with its preceding frame(s) in sequence and quantifying the extent of correspondence between each pair; when there is limited correspondence between a pair of frames (such that the differences measured are distinguishable from the measurement noise), and the corresponding input sequence of frames possesses distinguishable differences, then the current frame is categorized as an active frame.
Activity Factor - For a communications channel during a specified time interval, such as the busy hour, the percentage of time that a signal is present in the channel in either direction.
Activity Report - A printed report of a unit's incoming and out-going transactions. It may be printed automatically on demand or manually at a specified interval. Information may include date and time of transmission, the fax number/name, duration, number of pages, and result errors incurred, and comment.
ACTS (Automatic Coin Telephone System) - A public coin-operated telephone service that completes a variety of phone calls, times the calls, and collects payment without the aid of an operator.
ACU - Abbreviation for automatic calling unit.
A-D - Abbreviation for analog-to-digital. See analog transmission.
Ad-Hoc Network (or "spontaneous") - A local area network or other small network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections, in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while in some close proximity to the rest of the network. In Latin, ad hoc literally means "for this," further meaning "for this purpose only," and thus usually temporary. The term has been applied to future office or home networks in which new devices can be quickly added, using, for example, the proposed Bluetooth technology in which devices communicate with the computer and perhaps other devices using wireless transmission.
Adapter - A physical device that allows one hardware or electronic interface to be adapted (accommodated without loss of function) to another hardware or electronic interface. In a computer, an adapter is often built into a card that can be inserted into a slot on the computer's motherboard. The card adapts information that is exchanged between the computer's microprocessor and the devices that the card supports.
Adaptive Compression - In computer science, a software-oriented compression process based on continuous analysis of the data stream, and depending on the type and content of the data and the storage medium, corresponding compensation of the compression algorithm.
Adaptive Prediction - In ADPCM coding, a time-varying process that computes an estimate of the input signal from the quantized difference signal.
Adaptive Quantization - In ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse code modulation) coding, a process in which the quantizer step size varies as a function of the quantized input signal's variance.
Ada ® - The official, high-level computer language of DOD for embedded-computer, real-time applications as defined in MIL-STD-1815. Note: Ada® is a registered trademark of the U.S. Government (Ada Joint Program Office).
Adaptive Communications - Any communications system, or portion thereof, that automatically uses feedback information obtained from the system itself or from the signals carried by the system to modify dynamically one or more of the system operational parameters to improve system performance or to resist degradation. Note: The modification of a system parameter may be discrete, as in hard-switched diversity reception, or may be continuous, as in a predetection combining algorithm
Adaptive Channel Allocation - In communications system traffic flow control, channel allocation in which information-handling capacities of channels are not predetermined but are assigned on demand. Note: Adaptive channel allocation is usually accomplished by means of a multiplexing scheme.
Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM) - Differential pulse-code modulation in which the prediction algorithm is adjusted in accordance with specific characteristics of the input signal.
Adaptive Equalization - Equalization (a) that is automatically accomplished while traffic is being transmitted and (b) in which signal characteristics are dynamically adjusted to compensate for changing transmission path characteristics.
Adaptive Predictive Coding (APC) - Narrowband analog-to-digital conversion that uses a one-level or multilevel sampling system in which the value of the signal at each sampling instant is predicted according to a linear function of the past values of the quantized signals. Note: APC is related to linear predictive coding (LPC) in that both use adaptive predictors. However, APC uses fewer prediction coefficients, thus requiring a higher sampling rate than LPC.
Adaptive Radio - A radio that (a) monitors its own performance, (b) monitors the path quality through sounding or polling, (c) varies operating characteristics, such as frequency, power, or data rate, and (d) uses closed-loop action to optimize its performance by automatically selecting frequencies or channels.
Adaptive Routing - Routing that is automatically adjusted to compensate for network changes such as traffic patterns, channel availability, or equipment failures. Note: The experience used for adaptation comes from the traffic being carried.
Adaptive System - A system that has a means of monitoring its own performance, a means of varying its own parameters, and uses closed-loop action to improve its performance or to optimize traffic.
ADC - Abbreviation for analog-to-digital converter, analog-to-digital conversion.
ADCCP - Abbreviation for Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures. - A bit-oriented Data-Link-Layer protocol used to provide point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmission of data frames that contain error-control information. Note: ADCCP closely resembles high-level data link control (HDLC) and synchronous data link control (SDLC).
Ad Clicks - Synonym click-through. - The process of clicking on a Web advertisement and going directly to the advertiser's Web site. Synonyms clicks, requests.
Add/drop Multiplexing - A multiplexing function offered in connection with SONET that allows lower level signals to be added or dropped from a high-speed optical carrier channel in a wire center. The connection to the add/ drop multiplexer is via a channel to a central office port at a specific digital speed (i.e., DS3, DS1, etc.).
Added Bit - A bit delivered to the intended destination user in addition to intended user information bits and delivered overhead bits. Synonym extra bit.
Added Block - Any block, or other delimited bit group, delivered to the intended destination user in addition to intended user information bits and delivered overhead bits. Synonym extra block.
Adder - 1. A device whose output data are a representation of the sum of the numbers represented by its input data. Note: An adder may be serial or parallel, digital or analog. 2. A device whose output data are a representation of the sum of the quantities represented by its input data. Note: An adder can add things other than representations of numbers. It can add voltages, etc. Analog adders are not limited to summing representations of numbers. An adder may operate on digital or analog data.
Adder-Subtracter - A device that acts as an adder or subtracter depending upon the control signal received; the adder-subtracter may be constructed so as to yield a sum and a difference at the same time. Note: An arithmetic adder-subtracter yields arithmetic sums and differences, whereas a logical adder-subtracter yields logical sums and differences.
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) - Synonym white noise.
Add Mode - In addition and subtraction operations, a mode in which the decimal marker is placed at a predetermined location with respect to the last digit entered.
Add-On Conference - A service feature that allows an additional party to be added to an established call without attendant assistance. Note: A common implementation provides a progressive method that allows a call originator or a call receiver to add at least one additional party.
Address - 1. In communications, the coded representation of the source or destination of a message. 2. In data processing, a character or group of characters that identifies a register, a particular part of storage, or some other data source or destination. 3. To assign to a device or item of data a label to identify its location. 4. The part of a selection signal that indicates the destination of a call. 5. To refer to a device or data item by its address.
Addressability - 1. In computer graphics, the capability of a display surface or storage device to accommodate a specified number of uniquely identifiable points. 2. In micrographics, the capability of a specified field frame to contain a specific number of uniquely identifiable points. Note: The addressability is usually specified as the number of identifiable horizontal points by the number of identifiable vertical points, such as 3000 by 4000.
Addressable Point - In computer graphics, any point of a device that can be addressed.
Address Field - The portion of a message that contains the source-user address and the destination-user addresses. Note: In a communications network, the address field is usually contained within the message header portion of the message. A message usually consists of the message header, the user data, and a trailer.
Address-Indicating Group (AIG) - A station or address designator, used to represent a set of specific and frequently recurring combinations of action or information addresses. Note: The identity of the message originator may also be included in the AIG. An address group is assigned to each AIG for use as an address designator.
Address Message - A message sent in the forward direction that contains (a) address information, (b) the signaling information required to route and connect a call to the called line, (c) service-class information, (d) information relating to user and network facilities, and (e) call-originator identity or call-receiver identity.
Address Message Sequencing - In common-channel signaling, a procedure for ensuring that address messages are processed in the correct order when the order in which they are received is incorrect.
Address Part - A part of an instruction that usually contains only an address or part of an address.
Address Pattern - A prescribed structure of data used to represent the destination(s) of a block, message, packet, or other formalized data structure.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - A Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol that dynamically binds a Network-Layer IP address to a Data-Link-Layer physical hardware address, e.g., Ethernet address.
Address Separator - A character that separates the different addresses in a selection signal.
Address Signaling - A process used to convey address information; two address signaling methods, dial pulse (DP) and dual tone multi frequency (DTMF), are used in telephone systems.
Addressable Call Endpoint - a device that can originate or receive a call in a telephone network. In voice over IP (VoIP), addressable call endpoints can be categorized as either voice-network dial peers or POTS (plain old telephone service) dial peers. Voice-network dial peers include VoIP-capable computers, routers, and gateways within a network. POTS dial peers include traditional telephone network devices such as phone sets, cell phones, and fax machines.
ADH - Abbreviation for automatic data handling.
Adiabatic Computer Circuit - A circuit that avoids loss or gain of heat. For example, a computer could clear a "1" in a register by subtracting the "1" instead of erasing it, thereby expending less heat.
Adjacent-Channel Interference - Extraneous power from a signal in an adjacent channel. Note 1: Adjacent channel interference may be caused by inadequate filtering, such as incomplete filtering of unwanted modulation products in frequency modulation (FM) systems, improper tuning, or poor frequency control, in either the reference channel or the interfering channel, or both. Note 2: Adjacent-channel interference is distinguished from crosstalk.
Adjacent Signaling Points - Two signaling points that are directly interconnected by one or more signaling links.
Adjunct Service Point (ASP) - An intelligent-network feature that resides at the intelligent peripheral equipment and responds to service logic interpreter requests for service processing.
Administration - 1. Any governmental department or service responsible for discharging the obligations undertaken in the convention of the International Telecommunication Union and the Regulations. 2. Internal management of units. 3. The management and execution of all military matters not included in strategy and tactics. 4. In international telecommunications for a given country, the government agency assigned responsibility for the implementation of telecommunications standards, regulations, recommendations, practices, and procedures. 5. In network management, network support functions that ensure that (a) services are performed, (b) the network is used efficiently, and (c) prescribed service-quality objectives are met.
Administrative Management Complex (AMC) - In network management, a complex that is controlled by a network provider, and is responsible for and performs network management functions such as network maintenance.
Adobe Acrobat Reader - A software program developed by Adobe Systems, Inc., used to view files in PDF format. The software displays documents with the same layout and design as the original.
ADP - Abbreviation for automatic data processing.
ADPCM - Abbreviation for adaptive differential pulse-code modulation.
ADPE - Abbreviation for automatic data processing equipment.
ADP System - Synonym computer system.
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - A new modem technology that allows existing twisted pair telephone lines to access the Internet at T-1 speeds. A technology for transmitting digital information at a high bandwidth on existing phone lines to homes and businesses. Unlike regular dial up phone service, ADSL provides continously-available, "always on" connection. ADSL is asymmetric in that it uses most of the channel to transmit downstream to the user and only a small part to receive information from the user. ADSL simultaneously accommodates analog (voice) information on the same line. ADSL is generally offered at downstream data rates from 512 Kbps to about 6 Mbps. A form of ADSL, known as Universal ADSL or G.lite, has been approved as a standard by the
ADSL was specifically designed to exploit the one-way nature of most multimedia communication in which large amounts of information flow toward the user and only a small amount of interactive control information is returned. Several experiments with ADSL to real users began in 1996. In 1998, wide-scale installations began in several parts of the U.S. In 2000 and beyond, ADSL and other forms of DSL are expected to become generally available in urban areas. With ADSL (and other forms of DSL), telephone companies are competing with cable companies and their cable modem services.
ADSL Modem - An ATU-R (ADSL Terminal Unit - Remote) is a hardware unit that is installed in any computer that uses a telephone company connection with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) service. The ATU-R connects to an Ethernet network interface card (NIC) in the computer and, on the other side, to a telephone jack in the home or business. Ideally (for less interference), the telephone jack hooks up to a new wire that goes to a signal splitter that the telephone company installs at the telephone company demarcation point (the place where the outside phone company wire or wires connect to the network of phone lines within the customer's building). The splitter divides the signal into low frequencies for voice and high frequencies for data.
Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures (ADCCP) - A bit-oriented Data-Link-Layer protocol used to provide point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmission of data frames that contain error-control information. Note: ADCCP closely resembles high-level data link control (HDLC) and synchronous data link control (SDLC).
Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) - 1. A telecommunications network architecture that uses databases to facilitate call processing, call routing, and network management, allowing carriers to change the routing of both inbound and outbound calls from moment to moment. [FCC-5] 2. A proposed intelligent-network (IN) architecture that includes both IN/1+ and IN/2 concepts.
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) - A standard system for analog signal cellular telephone service in the United States and is also used in other countries. It is based on the initial electromagnetic radiation spectrum allocation for cellular service by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970. Introduced by AT&T in 1983, AMPS became and currently still is the most widely deployed cellular system in the United States.
Advanced Television (ATV) - A family of television systems that is intended to be improvements over current commercial-quality television. Note: The ATV family includes improved-definition television (IDTV), extended-definition television (EDTV), and high-definition television (HDTV).
AECS - Abbreviation for Aeronautical Emergency Communications System. See Aeronautical Emergency Communications System Plan.
Aerial Cable - A communications cable designed for installation on, or suspension from, a pole or other overhead structure.
Aerial Insert - In a direct-buried or underground cable run, a cable rise to a point above ground, followed by an overhead run, e.g., on poles, followed by a drop back into the ground. Note: An aerial insert is used in places where it is not possible or practical to remain underground, such as might be encountered in crossing a deep ditch, canal, river, or subway line.
Aeronautical Advisory Station - An aeronautical station used for advisory and civil defense communications primarily with private aircraft stations. Synonym UNICOM station.
Aeronautical Broadcast Station - An aeronautical station which makes scheduled broadcasts of meteorological information and notices to airmen. (In certain instances, an aeronautical broadcast station may be placed on board a ship.)
Aeronautical Earth Station - An Earth station in the fixed-satellite service, or, in some cases, in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder link for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service.
Aeronautical Emergency Communications System (AECS) Plan - The AECS Plan provides for the operation of aeronautical communications stations, on a voluntary, organized basis, to provide the President and the Federal Government, as well as heads of state and local governments, or their designated representatives, and the aeronautical industry with an expeditious means of communications during an emergency situation.
Aeronautical Fixed Service - A radio communication service between specified fixed points provided primarily for the safety of air navigation and for the regular, efficient and economical operation of air transport.
Aeronautical Fixed Station - A station in the aeronautical fixed service.
Aeronautical Mobile (OR) [off-route] Service - An aeronautical mobile service intended for communications, including those relating to flight coordination, primarily outside national or international civil air routes.
Aeronautical Mobile (R) [route] Service - An aeronautical mobile service reserved for communications relating to safety and regularity of flight, primarily along national or international civil air routes.
Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite Service - A mobile-satellite service in which mobile Earth stations are located on board aircraft; survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service.
Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite (OR) [off-route] Service - An aeronautical mobile-satellite service intended for communications, including those relating to flight coordination, primarily outside national and international civil air routes.
Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite (R) [route] Service - An aeronautical mobile-satellite service reserved for communications relating to safety and regularity of flight, primarily along national or international civil air routes.
Aeronautical Mobile Service - A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate; emergency position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service on designated distress and emergency frequencies.
Aeronautical Multicom Service - A mobile service not open to public correspondence, used to provide communications essential to conduct activities being performed by or directed from private aircraft.
Aeronautical Radionavigation-Satellite Service - A radionavigation-satellite service in which Earth stations are located on board aircraft.
Aeronautical Radionavigation Service - A radionavigation service intended for the benefit and for the safe operation of aircraft.
Aeronautical Station - A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea.
AF - Abbreviation for audio frequency.
AFNOR - Acronym for Association Francaise de Normalisation. France's national standards-setting organization.
AGC - Abbreviation for automatic gain control.
Agent - Synonym droid.
Aggregation - In security, the acquisition of sensitive information by collecting and correlating information of lesser sensitivity.
Aggregator - Any entity that, in the ordinary course of its operations, makes telephones available to the public or to transient users of its premises, for interstate telephone calls using a provider of operator services.
AI - Abbreviation for artificial intelligence.
AIM - Abbreviation for amplitude intensity modulation. See intensity modulation.
AIN - Abbreviation for advanced intelligent network.
AIOD - Abbreviation for automatic identified outward dialing.
AIOD Leads - Terminal equipment leads used solely to transmit automatic identified outward dialing (AIOD) data from a PBX to the public switched telephone network or to switched service networks (e.g., EPSCS), so that a vendor can provide a detailed monthly bill identifying long-distance usage by individual PBX stations, tie trunks, or the attendant.
Airborne Radio Relay - 1. Airborne equipment used to relay radio transmission from selected originating transmitters. 2. A technique employing aircraft fitted with radio relay stations for the purpose of increasing the range, flexibility, or physical security of communications systems.
Air-Conditioning - The simultaneous controlling of the characteristics of air, such as temperature, humidity, cleanliness, motion, and pollutant concentration, in a space to meet the requirements of the occupants, a process, or equipment. Synonym environmental control.
Aircraft Earth Station - A mobile Earth station in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service located on board an aircraft.
Aircraft Emergency Frequency - An international aeronautical emergency frequency, such as 121.5 MHz (civil) and 243.0 MHz (military), for aircraft stations and stations concerned with safety and regulation of flight along national or international civil air routes and maritime mobile service stations authorized to communicate for safety purposes.
Aircraft Station - A mobile station in the aeronautical mobile service, other than a survival craft station, located on board an aircraft.
Airdrome Control Station - An aeronautical station providing communication between an airdrome control tower and aircraft. Synonym airport control station.
Air-Floating Head - Synonym floating head.
Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service - A radio service in which common carriers are authorized to offer and provide radio telecommunications service for hire to subscribers in aircraft.
Air-Ground Worldwide Communications System - A worldwide military network of ground stations that (a) provides two-way communications links between aircraft and ground stations for navigation and control, including air route traffic control and (b) may also provide support for special functions, such as for civil aircraft providing assistance to military missions and for meeting communications requirements for aircraft flying distinguished visitors.
Air Portable - Denotes materiel that is suitable for transport by an aircraft loaded internally or externally, with no more than minor dismantling and reassembling within the capabilities of user units. This term must be qualified to show the extent of air portability.
Airport Control Station - Synonym airdrome control station.
Air Sounding - Measuring atmospheric phenomena or determining atmospheric conditions, especially by means of apparatus carried by balloons, rockets, or satellites.
Air-Spaced Coaxial Cable - A coaxial cable in which air is the primary dielectric (insulator) between the inner and outer conductors. Note: Proper separation between the inner and outer conductors is maintained by a continuous helical insulator or a series of insulating washers spaced at regular intervals.
Air Terminal - In grounding systems, the lightning rod or conductor placed on or above a building, structure, or external conductors for the purpose of intercepting lightning.
AIS - Abbreviation for alarm indication signal, automated information system.
Alarm - An alerting indication to a condition that may have immediate or potential negative impact on the state of the monitored network element.
Alarm Center - A location that receives local and remote alarms. Note: An alarm center is usually in a technical control facility.
Alarm Event - An instantaneous occurrence that changes at least one of the attributes of the alarm status of an object. This status change may be persistent or temporary, thus allowing for surveillance, monitoring, and performance measurement functionality, etc. Alarm events may or may not generate alarm reports; they may trigger other events or may be triggered by one or more other events.
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) - 1. A signal transmitted in lieu of the normal signal to maintain transmission continuity and to indicate to the receiving equipment that there is a transmission interruption located either at the equipment originating the AIS signal or upstream of that equipment. 2. A signal transmitted in lieu of the normal signal to maintain transmission continuity and indicate to the receiving terminal that there is a transmission fault located either at the transmitting terminal or upstream of the transmitting terminal.
Alarm Indicator - A device that responds to a signal from an alarm sensor. Note: Examples of alarm indicators include bells, lamps, horns, gongs, and buzzers.
Alarm Sensor - 1. In communications systems, any device that (a) can sense an abnormal condition within the system and provide a signal indicating the presence or nature of the abnormality to either a local or remote alarm indicator, and (b) may detect events ranging from a simple contact opening or closure to a time-phased automatic shutdown and restart cycle. 2. In a physical security system, an approved device used to indicate a change in the physical environment of a facility or a part thereof. Note: Alarm sensors may also be redundant or chained, such as when one alarm sensor is used to protect the housing, cabling, or power protected by another alarm sensor.
Alarm Status - A set of attributes that describes the alarms currently defined for an object, for example, perceived severity, alarm state, etc. The alarm status of an object is a subset of the global status of that object.
Alarm Surveillance - A set of functions that enables the monitoring or interrogation (or both) of the telecommunications network concerning alarm-related events or conditions.
A-law - See a-law algorithm.
A-Law Algorithm - A standard compression algorithm, used in digital communications systems of the European digital hierarchy, to optimize, i.e., modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal for digitizing. Note: The wide dynamic range of speech does not lend itself well to efficient linear digital encoding. A-law encoding effectively reduces the dynamic range of the signal, thereby increasing the coding efficiency and resulting in a signal-to-distortion ratio that is superior to that obtained by linear encoding for a given number of bits.
ALE - Abbreviation for automatic link establishment.
Alerting Signal - A signal used by the network to indicate the presence of an incoming call. It consists of a ringing signal periodically interrupted by silent (no ringing signal) intervals.
Algorithmic Language - An artificial language established for expressing a given class of algorithms.
Algorithm Identifier - In encryption, a unique identifier or recognizer for a given encryption or hash algorithm, together with any required parameters.
Alias - 1. See aliasing. 2. In networking, one of a set of domain names of an Internet resource. [2382-pt.35] 3. Synonyms personal number, UPT number.
Aliasing - In any technology or process involving (a) sampling a signal, e.g., an electrical signal or (a series of images of) a moving subject; (b) processing, storing, or transmitting representations of the samples; and (c) replicating the original signal from the representations: the production of artifacts as a result of sampling at intervals too great to permit faithful replication of the original signal. Note 1: A common example of aliasing in video or motion picture technology is the apparent slowing, freezing, or even reversing of direction of, the motion of spokes in the wheels on a moving vehicle. Note 2: In the sampling and replication of electrical signals, if the sampling interval is too great, high-frequency components may, for example, be replicated as low-frequency components, distorting the replicated signal. Note 3: Faithful reproduction of a sampled electrical signal requires a theoretical sampling interval not greater than one-half the inverse of the highest Fourier frequency component in the sampled signal (Nyquist interval). In practice, to achieve a given level of fidelity in the replicated signal, the sampling interval must usually be somewhat shorter than the theoretical (Nyquist) interval, because the samples are usually processed, stored, or transmitted in digital form, and quantization errors in the digitizing process will also result in distortion of the (waveform of the) replicated signal. Note 4: The effects of aliasing in the replicated signal may be avoided by filtering the original signal to remove frequency components that are higher than those desired in the replicated signal. Note 5 (from SMPTE): Video images are sampled in two or three dimensions, and computer graphics are sampled in three. In a composite (complex) spectral channel, any cross talk of the information cannot be eliminated by filtering, and will produce aliasing, for example as cross-color and/or cross-luminance. In a rectilinearly sampled system, lines not parallel to a sampling axis will appear stepped unless anti-aliasing processing algorithms have been applied.
Alias Point Code - 1. A Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) address that is shared by more than one system supporting the same GTT (global title translation) function (or other SS7 function). It allows other systems to address the function instead of maintaining the status of multiple point codes. [T1.711-1999] 2. A point code that may be assigned to more than one signaling point, each of which is also assigned a "real" point code. Note: Each of the signaling points having the same "alias" point code is capable of providing a predefined functionality (capability) in the network. As an example for management of global translation capability, an STP (signaling transition point) and its mate can be assigned the same "alias" point code. This provides the capability such that if a message that requires global title translation is routed based on "alias" point code, then either STP answering to the "alias" point code can provide the global title translation functionality. Synonym capability code.
Aligned Bundle - A bundle of optical fibers in which the relative spatial coordinates of each fiber are the same at the two ends of the bundle. Note: Such a bundle may be used for the transmission of images. Synonym coherent bundle.
Alignment Error Rate Monitoring - A procedure by which the error rate of a signaling link is measured during the initial alignment process.
Alignment Jitter - The short-term variations between the optimum sampling instants of a digital signal and the sampling clock derived from it.
Allan variance - One half of the time average over the sum of the squares of the differences between successive readings of the frequency deviation sampled over the sampling period. Note: The Allan variance is conventionally expressed by y 2(). The samples are taken with no dead-time between them. Synonym two-sample variance.
Allcall - In adaptive high-frequency (HF) radio automatic link establishment (ALE), a general broadcast that does not request responses and does not designate any specific addresses. Note: This essential function is required for emergencies ("HELP"), sounding-type data exchanges, and propagation and connectivity tracking.
All-Glass Fiber - Synonym all-silica fiber.
Allocation (of a frequency band) - 1. Entry in the Table of Frequency Allocations of a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more (terrestrial or space) radio communication services or the radio astronomy service under specified conditions. This term shall also be applied to the frequency band concerned. 2. The process of designating radio-frequency bands for use by specific radio services.
Allotment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel) - Entry of a designated frequency channel in an agreed plan, adopted by a component Conference, for use by one or more administrations for a (terrestrial or space) radio communication service in one or more identified countries or geographical areas and under specified conditions.
All-Silica Fiber - An optical fiber composed of a silica-based core and cladding. Note: The presence of a protective polymer overcoat does not disqualify a fiber as an all-silica fiber, nor does the presence of a tight buffer. Synonym all-glass fiber.
All Trunks Busy (ATB) - An equipment condition in which all trunks (paths) in a given trunk group are busy. Note: All-trunks-busy registers do not indicate subsequent attempts to reach trunk groups.
Alphabet - 1. An ordered set of all the letters used in a language, including letters with diacritical signs where appropriate, but not including punctuation marks. 2. An ordered set of all the symbols used in a language, including punctuation marks, numeric digits, nonprinting control characters, and other symbols. Note: Examples of alphabets include the Roman alphabet, the Greek alphabet, the Morse Code, and the 128 characters of the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).
Alphabetic Character Set - A character set that contains letters and may contain control characters, special characters, and the space character, but not digits.
Alphabetic Code - A code according to which data are represented through the use of an alphabetic character set.
Alphabetic String: - 1. A string consisting solely of letters from the same alphabet. 2. A character string consisting solely of letters and associated special characters from the same alphabet.
Alphabetic Word - 1. A word consisting solely of letters from the same alphabet. 2. A word that consists of letters and associated special characters, but not digits.
Alphabet Translation - Deprecated synonym for alphabet transliteration. See alphabet transliteration.
Alphabet Transliteration - The substitution of the characters of one alphabet for the corresponding characters of a different alphabet, usually accomplished on a character-by-character basis. Note 1: An example of alphabet transliteration is the substitution of the Roman letters a, b, and p for the Greek letters , , and , respectively. Note 2: Alphabet transliteration is reversible. Note 3: Alphabet transliteration often becomes necessary in telecommunications systems because of the different alphabets and codes used worldwide. Note 4: In alphabet transliteration, no consideration is given to the meaning of the characters or their combinations.
Alphanumeric - 1. Pertaining to a character set that contains letters, digits, and sometimes other characters, such as punctuation marks. 2. Pertaining to a set of unique bit patterns that are used to represent letters of an alphabet, decimal digits, punctuation marks, and other special signs and symbols used in grammar, business, and science, such as those displayed on conventional typewriter keyboards.
Alphanumeric Character Set - A character set that contains both letters and digits, special characters, and the space character.
Alphanumeric Code - 1. A code derived from an alphanumeric character set. 2. A code that, when used, results in a code set that consists of alphanumeric characters.
Alphanumeric Data - Data represented by letters, digits, and sometimes by special characters and the space character.
Alpha Profile - See power-law index profile.
Altazimuth Mount - A mounting, e.g., for a directional antenna, in which slewing takes place in (a) the plane tangent to the surface of the Earth or other frame of reference and (b) elevation about, i.e., above or below, that plane. Synonym x-y mount.
Alteration - In encryption, the process of changing one or more message elements in a message as a means of committing a fraud.
Alternate Access Provider - A company that enters a market area as a competitive service provider (CAP) to provide exchange service in competition with one or more existing exchange carrier (s) in the same market area.
Alternate Carrier Routing (ACR) - A special advanced intelligent network (AIN) feature supporting Government Emergency Telecommunications Service (GETS) calls. The feature automatically routes GETS calls to selected carriers to provide improved call completion probability during times of network congestion or damage during disasters or crises.
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) Signal - A pseudoternary signal, representing binary digits, in which (a) successive "marks" are of alternately positive and negative polarity and the absolute values of their amplitudes are normally equal and (b) "spaces" are of zero amplitude. Synonym bipolar signal.
Alternate Party - In multilevel precedence and preemption, the call receiver, i.e., the destination user, to which a precedence call will be diverted. Note 1: Diversion will occur when the response timer expires, when the call receiver is busy on a call of equal or higher precedence, or when the call receiver is busy with access resources that are non-preemptable. Note 2: Alternate party diversion is an optional terminating feature that is subscribed to by the call receiver. Thus, the alternate party is specified by the call receiver at the time of subscription.
Alternate Route - A second or subsequent choice path between two points.
Alternate Routing - 1. The routing of a call or message over a substitute route when a primary route is unavailable for immediate use. 2. In signaling, the process of allocating substitute routes for a given signaling traffic stream in case of failure (s) affecting the signaling links or routes involved in the normal routing of that signaling traffic stream. 3. In signaling, the routing of a given signaling traffic flow in case of failures affecting the signaling link (s), or route(s), involved in the normal routing of that signaling traffic flow. Synonym alternative routing.
Alternating Current - (See AC Current)
Alternating Mode - Synonym half-duplex (HDX) operation.
Alternative Routing - 1. In signaling, the process of allocating substitute routes for a given signaling traffic stream in case of failure (s) affecting the signaling links or routes involved in the normal routing of that signaling traffic stream. 2. In signaling, the routing of a given signaling traffic flow in case of failures affecting the signaling link (s), or route (s), involved in the normal routing of that signaling traffic flow.Synonym alternate routing.
Altitude of the Apogee or of the Perigee - The altitude of the apogee or perigee above a specified reference surface serving to represent the surface of the Earth. Note: In technical usage, the definite article is not used with the term apogee or perigee alone. A body orbiting the Earth is said simply to be "at apogee" or "at perigee." It may, however, properly be said to be "at the point of apogee" or"at the point of perigee."
ALU - Abbreviation for arithmetic and logic unit.
AM - Abbreviation for amplitude modulation.
AMA - Abbreviation for automatic message accounting.
Amateur-Satellite Service - A radio communication service using space stations on Earth satellites for the same purposes as those of the amateur service.
Amateur Service - A radio communication service for the purpose of self-training, intercommunication and technical investigation carried out by amateurs, that is, by duly authorized persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.
Amateur Station - A station in the amateur service.
Ambient Noise Level - The level of acoustic noise existing at a given location, such as in a room, in a compartment, or at a place out of doors. Note 1: Ambient noise level is measured with a sound level meter. Note 2: Ambient noise level is usually measured in dB above a reference pressure level of 0.00002 Pa, i.e., 20 Pa (micropascals) in SI units. A pascal is a newton per square meter. Note 3: In the centimeter-gram-second system of units, the reference level for measuring ambient noise level is 0.0002 dyn/cm2. Synonym room noise level.
Ambient Temperature - The temperature of air or other media in a designated area, particularly the area surrounding equipment.
AME - Abbreviation for amplitude modulation equivalent, automatic message exchange. See compatible sideband transmission.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) - The U.S. standards organization that establishes procedures for the development and coordination of voluntary American National Standards.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) - See ASCII.
AMI - Abbreviation for alternate mark inversion. See alternate mark inversion signal.
AMI Violation: - A " mark " that has the same polarity as the previous "mark" in the transmission of alternate mark inversion (AMI) signals. Note: In some transmission protocols, AMI violations are deliberately introduced to facilitate synchronization or to signal a special event.
Amplifier - 1. An electronic component that boosts the voltage or power level of a signal that is a linear replica of the input signal, but with greater power or voltage level, and sometimes with an impedance transformation. The output may also be a nonlinear analog function of the input signal, as in a signal compression device. 2. See fiber amplifier, optical repeater.
Amplitude Compression - 1. See signal compression. 2. In video production, the imposition of a nonlinear transfer function on (i.e., the nonlinear processing of, to reduce the dynamic range of) signal amplitude values (e.g., as in gamma correction).
Amplitude Distortion - Distortion occurring in a system, subsystem, or device when the output amplitude is not a linear function of the input amplitude under specified conditions. Note: Amplitude distortion is measured with the system operating under steady-state conditions with a sinusoidal input signal. When other frequencies are present, the term "amplitude" refers to that of the fundamental only.
Amplitude Equalizer - A corrective network that is designed to modify the amplitude characteristics of a circuit or system over a desired frequency range. Note: Such devices may be fixed, manually adjustable, or automatic.
Amplitude hit - See hit.
Amplitude Intensity Modulation (AIM) - Deprecated term. See intensity modulation.
Amplitude Keying - Keying in which the amplitude of a signal is varied among the members of a set of discrete values.
Amplitude Modulation (AM) - Modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with some characteristic of the modulating signal. Note: Amplitude modulation implies the modulation of a coherent carrier wave by mixing it in a nonlinear device with the modulating signal to produce discrete upper and lower sidebands, which are the sum and difference frequencies of the carrier and signal. The envelope of the resultant modulated wave is an analog of the modulating signal. The instantaneous value of the resultant modulated wave is the vector sum of the corresponding instantaneous values of the carrier wave, upper sideband, and lower sideband. Recovery of the modulating signal may be by direct detection or by heterodyning.
Amplitude Modulation Equivalent (AME) - Synonym compatible sideband transmission.
Amplitude-vs.-Frequency Distortion - Distortion in a transmission system caused by nonuniform attenuation, or gain, in the system with respect to frequency under specified operating conditions. Synonym frequency distortion.
AMPS - allocates frequency ranges within the 800 and 900 Megahertz (
MHz) spectrum to cellular telephone. Each service provider can use half of the 824-849 MHz range for receiving signals from cellular phones and half the 869-894 MHz range for transmitting to cellular phones. The bands are divided into 30 kHz sub-bands, called channels. The receiving channels are called reverse channels and the sending channels are called forward channels. The division of the spectrum into sub-band channels is achieved by using frequency division multiple access (FDMA).
The signals received from a transmitter cover an area called a cell. As a user moves out of the cell's area into an adjacent cell, the user begins to pick up the new cell's signals without any noticeable transition. The signals in the adjacent cell are sent and received on different channels than the previous cell's signals to so that the signals don't interfere with each other.
The analog service of AMPS has been updated with digital cellular service by adding to FDMA a further subdivision of each channel using time division multiple access (TDMA). This service is known as digital AMPS (D-AMPS). Although AMPS and D-AMPS originated for the North American cellular telephone market, they are now used worldwide with over 74 million subscribers, according to Ericsson, one of the major cellular phone manufacturers. Abbreviation for automatic message processing system.
AMTS - Abbreviation for automated maritime telecommunications system.
Analog - In telecommunications, an analog signal is one in which a base carrier's alternating current frequency is modified in some way, such as by amplifying the strength of the signal or varying the frequency, in order to add information to the signal. Broadcast and telephone transmission have conventionally used analog technology.
An analog signal can be represented as a series of sine waves. The term originated because the modulation of the carrier wave is analogous to the fluctuations of the human voice or other sound that is being transmitted.
Analog Channel - A communications path that carries voice or video in analog form — as a varying range of electrical frequencies (See Analog Signal).
Analog Component - Synonym CAV.
Analog Computer - A device that performs operations on data that are represented within the device by continuous variables having a physical resemblance to the quantities being represented. Note: The earliest analog computers were constructed with purely mechanical components, such as levers, cogs, cams, discs, and gears. These components represented the quantities being manipulated or the operator-inserted values. Modern analog computers usually employ electrical parameters, such as voltages, resistance's, or currents to represent the quantities being manipulated.
Analog Data - Data represented by a physical quantity that is considered to be continuously variable and has a magnitude directly proportional to the data or to a suitable function of the data.
Analog Decoding - The portion of the digital-to-analog conversion process that generates an analog signal value from the digital signal that resulted from analog encoding. Note: Further action is required to integrate these samples to obtain a continuous approximation of the original signal, because analog decoding does not smooth the signal.
Analog Encoding - The portion of the analog-to-digital conversion process that samples an analog signal and creates a digital signal that represents the value of the sample. Note: Multiple samples are needed to digitize a waveform over a time interval.
Analog Facsimile Equipment: Facsimile equipment in which (a) analog techniques are used to encode the image detected by the scanner and (b) the output is an analog signal. Note: Examples of analog facsimile equipment are CCITT Group 1 and CCITT Group 2 facsimile equipment.
Analog Pass-Through - Digital converter box capability, which allows analog broadcast signals to pass through the converter box to be tuned by your analog TV.
Analog Signal - 1. A signal that has a continuous nature rather than a pulsed or discrete nature. Note: Electrical or physical analogies, such as continuously varying voltages, frequencies, or phases, may be used as analog signals. 2. A nominally continuous electrical signal that varies in some direct correlation with another signal impressed on a transducer. Note: For example, an analog signal may vary in frequency, phase, or amplitude in response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, heat, position, or pressure. 3. A type of signal that encodes voice, video, or data transmitted over wire or over-the-air that is commonly represented as an oscillating wave. An analog signal may vary in frequency in response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, heat, position, or pressure.
Analog Signaling Data Link - The data link that provides an interface to signaling terminals and is made up of voice-frequency analog transmission channels and modems.
Analog Spectrum - A traditional range of frequencies used for radio and television transmission. This is a less-efficient and lower-quality system that uses Radio Frequency (RF) waves to transmit and display pictures and sound.
Analog Switch - Switching equipment designed, designated, or used to connect circuits between users for real-time transmission of analog signals
Analog-to-Digital (A-D) Coder - Synonym analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) - A device that converts an analog signal to a digital signal that represents equivalent information. Synonyms analog-to-digital (A-D) coder, analog-to-digital (A-D) encoder.
Analog-to-Digital (A-D) Encoder - Synonym analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
Analog Transmission - Transmission of a continuously varying signal as opposed to transmission of a discretely varying signal.
Analog Transmission Date - In the US, this refers to June 12, 2009, which was the DTV Transition deadline mandated by Congress for the turnoff of analog broadcasting by full-power TV stations. Other countries have also set deadlines for the transition from analog to digital broadcasting.
Analog TV- Analog television encodes television picture and sound information and transmits it as an analog signal (one in which the message conveyed by the broadcast signal is a function of deliberate variations in the amplitude and/or frequency of the signal). All systems preceding DTV (e.g. NTSC) are analog television systems. Analog technology has been in use for the past 50 years to transmit conventional TV signals to consumers.
Analytical Attack - An attempt to break a code or to find a key using analytical methods. Note: Examples of an analytical attack are: a statistical analysis of patterns; a search for flaws in an encryption algorithm. Synonym cryptanalytical attack.
Angle Modulation - Modulation in which the phase or frequency of a sinusoidal carrier is varied. Note: Phase and frequency modulation are particular forms of angle modulation.
Angle of Deviation - In optics, the net angular deflection experienced by a light ray after one or more refractions or reflections.
Angle of Incidence - The angle between an incident ray and the normal to a reflecting or refracting surface.
Angstrom () - A unit of length equal to 10-10 m. Note 1: The angstrom is not an SI (International System) unit, and it is not accepted for government use.Note 2: The angstrom is, and historically has been, used in the fields of optics, spectroscopy, and microscopy.
Angular Misalignment Loss - Power loss caused by the deviation from optimum angular alignment of the axes of source to wave guide, wave guide to wave guide, or wave guide to detector. Note 1: The wave guide may be dielectric (an optical fiber) or metallic. Note 2: Angular misalignment loss does not include lateral offset loss and longitudinal offset loss.
ANI - Abbreviation for automatic number identification.
Anisochronous - Pertaining to transmission in which the time interval separating any two significant instants in sequential signals is not necessarily related to the time interval separating any other two significant instants. Note: Isochronous and anisochronous are characteristics, while synchronous and asynchronous are relationships.
Anisochronous Transmission - See asynchronous transmission.
Anisotropic - Pertaining to a material whose electrical or optical properties vary with (a) the direction of propagation of a traveling wave or with (b) different polarizations of a traveling wave. Note 1: Anisotropy is exhibited by non-cubic crystals, which have different refractive indices for lightwaves propagating in different directions or with different polarizations. Note 2: Anisotropy may be induced in certain materials under mechanical strain.
Anomalous Propagation (AP) - Abnormal propagation caused by fluctuations in the properties (such as density and refractive index) of the propagation medium. Note: AP may result in the reception of signals well beyond the distances usually expected.
Anonymous Call - A 7- or 10-digit call to the directory number of the public service answering point (PSAP) (where applicable) causing the E911 system (emergency 9-1-1 system) to send to the PSAP a multifrequency (MF) pulse train devoid of the caller's emergency service identification.
Anonymous Call Rejection (ACR) - Allows you to automatically reject calls from parties who have activated a privacy feature preventing the delivery of their calling number and/or name to the called party. Once this feature is activated, the call is routed to a denial announcement and subsequently terminated. You will not receive any alerting for a call that is rejected.
Anonymous FTP - The name of a file-transfer protocol that allows a user on one host to access and transfer files to and from another host over a network.
ANS - Abbreviation for American National Standard.
ANSI - Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-568 - A U.S. industry standard that specifies a generic telecommunications cabling system, which will support a multiproduct, multivendor environment, for commercial buildings. Note 1: The standard specifies performance characteristics for unshielded twisted pair telecommunications cabling, including categories allowing data communications up to 100 Mb/s. These categories are designated 3, 4, and 5. Categories 1 and 2 have not been defined. Note 2: The standard has been adopted as FIPS PUB 174.
Answer Back - A signal sent by receiving equipment to the sending station to indicate that the receiver is ready to accept transmission.
Answer Indicator - A signal indicating acceptance of the call by the addressed user.
Answer Machine - Common term in UK and British commonwealth countries for a machine that answers telephone calls and lat you retrieve recorded messages from callers. - A device for automatically answering telephone calls and recording messages left by callers. Unlike voicemail, which is a centralized or networked system that performs a similar function, an answering machine is installed in the customer's premises alongside the telephone. Older answering machines use magnetic tape technology, while current equipment uses solid state memories (memory chips). Magnetic tape is still commonly used in many low cost devices. Also known as an answering machine, answering device, ansafone, ansaphone, answerphone or telephone answering device (TAD). If you want to purchase an answer machine, click here.
Answering Device - Also known as an answering machine- A device for answering phone calls and recording callers' messages. - A device for automatically answering telephone calls and recording messages left by callers. Unlike voicemail, which is often a centralized or a networked system that performs a similar function, an answering machine is installed in the customer's premises to augment the telephone. While early answering machines used magnetic tape technology, most modern equipment uses solid state memories. Magnetic tape is still commonly used. Also known as an answer machine, ansafone, ansaphone, answerphone or telephone answering device (TAD), If you are loking for an answering device, click here.
Answering Machine - A machine for answering and retrieving your telephone calls by recording callers' messages. - A device for automatically answering telephone calls and recording messages left by callers. Unlike voicemail, which is a centralized or networked system that performs a similar function, an answering machine is installed in the customer's premises alongside the telephone. Early answering machines used magnetic tape technology, while newer equipment uses solid state memories (memory chips). Magnetic tape is still used in many low cost devices. Answering machines answer the phone, play a recorded message and usually give the caller the opportunity to leave a recorded message. Also known as an answer machine (especially in UK and British commonwealth countries), ansafone, ansaphone, answerphone or telephone answering device (TAD). If you are interested in purchasing an answering machine, click here.
Answering Machine Accessories - Devices used in conjunction with answering machines or answering devices such as cords, power supplies, prerecorded messages and magnetic tapes. Older answering machines use magnetic tape technology while newer answering machines use solid state memories. Magnetic tapes are still the most common answering machine accessory. Do you need Answering Machine Accessories?
Answering Machine Silent Transfer -This feature works like Unanswered Call Silent Transfer except that it is designed for calls of 45 seconds or less. It should only be activated when you are using an answering machine to field after-hours calls. When a manual fax or modem call arrives and the answering machine has answered, the caller will still be able to get to a destination device by staying on the line after the answering machine "times out". If you answer a call and hang up before 45 seconds, The fax switch will transfer the call to the designated device. Factory preset is "off."
Answer Signal - 1. A supervisory signal returned from the called telephone to the originating switch when the call receiver answers. Note 1: The answer signal stops the ring back signal from being returned to the caller. Note 2: The answer signal is returned by means of a closed loop. 2. An off-hook signal transmitted towards the network when the called party answers. 3. An off-hook signal transmitted towards the network to indicate when the customer installation (CI) equipment has changed to the communication state.
Antenna - 1. Any structure or device used to collect or radiate electromagnetic waves. 2. A device that converts radio frequency electrical energy to radiated electromagnetic energy and vice versa; in a transmitting station, the device from which radio waves are emitted. 3. Device designed to receive the radio waves broadcast by television stations.
antenna aperture - See aperture.
Antenna Array - An assembly of antenna elements with dimensions, spacing, and illumination sequence such that the fields for the individual elements combine to produce a maximum intensity in a particular direction and minimum field intensities in other directions.
Antenna Blind Cone: The volume of space, usually approximately conical with its vertex at the antenna, that cannot be scanned by an antenna because of limitations of the antenna radiation pattern and mount. Note: An example of an antenna blind cone is that of an air route surveillance radar (ARSR). The horizontal radiation pattern of an ARSR antenna is very narrow. The vertical radiation pattern is fan-shaped, reaching approximately 70° of elevation above the horizontal plane. As the antenna is rotated about a vertical axis, it can illuminate targets only if they are 70° or less from the horizontal plane. Above that elevation, they are in the antenna blind cone. Synonym cone of silence.
Antenna Coupler - A device used to match the impedance of a transmitter and/or receiver to an antenna to provide maximum power transfer.
Antenna Dissipative Loss - A power loss resulting from changes in the measurable impedance of a practical antenna from a value theoretically calculated for a perfect antenna.
Antenna Effective Area - The functionally equivalent area from which an antenna directed toward the source of the received signal gathers or absorbs the energy of an incident electromagnetic wave. Note 1: Antenna effective area is usually expressed in square meters. Note 2: In the case of parabolic and horn-parabolic antennas, the antenna effective area is about 0.35 to 0.55 of the geometric area of the antenna aperture.
Antenna Efficiency - The ratio of the total radiated power to the total input power. Note: The total radiated power is the total input power less antenna dissipative losses.
Antenna Electrical Beam Tilt - The shaping of the radiation pattern in the vertical plane of a transmitting antenna by electrical means so that maximum radiation occurs at an angle below the horizontal plane.
Antenna Gain - The ratio of the power required at the input of a loss-free reference antenna to the power supplied to the input of the given antenna to produce, in a given direction, the same field strength at the same distance. Note 1: Antenna gain is usually expressed in dB. Note 2: Unless otherwise specified, the gain refers to the direction of maximum radiation. The gain may be considered for a specified polarization. Depending on the choice of the reference antenna, a distinction is made between:
- absolute or isotropic gain (Gi), when the reference antenna is an isotropic antenna isolated in space;
- gain relative to a half-wave dipole (Gd) when the reference antenna is a half-wave dipole isolated in space and with an equatorial plane that contains the given direction;
- gain relative to a short vertical antenna (Gr), when the reference antenna is a linear conductor, much shorter than one quarter of the wavelength, normal to the surface of a perfectly conducting plane which contains the given direction. Synonyms gain of an antenna, power gain of an antenna.
Antenna Gain-to-Noise-Temperature (G/T) - In the characterization of antenna performance, a figure of merit, where G is the antenna gain in decibels at the receive frequency, and T is the equivalent noise temperature of the receiving system in kelvins.
Antenna Height Above Average Terrain - The antenna height above the average terrain elevations from 3.2 to 16 kilometers (2 to 10 miles) from the antenna for the eight directions spaced evenly for each 45° of azimuth starting with true north. Note: In general, a different antenna height above average terrain will be determined in each direction from the antenna. The average of these eight heights is the antenna height above average terrain. In some cases, such as seashore, fewer than eight directions may be used.
Antenna Lobe - A three-dimensional section of the radiation pattern of a directional antenna, bounded by one or more cones of nulls or by regions of diminished irradiance.
Antenna Matching - The process of adjusting impedance so that the input impedance of an antenna equals or approximates the characteristic impedance of its transmission line over a specified range of frequencies. Note: The impedance of either the transmission line, or the antenna, or both, may be adjusted to effect the match.
Antenna Noise Temperature - The temperature of a hypothetical resistor at the input of an ideal noise-free receiver that would generate the same output noise power per unit bandwidth as that at the antenna output at a specified frequency. Note 1: The antenna noise temperature depends on antenna coupling to all noise sources in its environment as well as on noise generated within the antenna. Note 2: The antenna noise temperature is a measure of noise whose value is equal to the actual temperature of a passive device.
Anti-Clockwise Polarized Wave - Synonym left-hand polarized wave.
Anti-Interference - Pertaining to equipment, processes, or techniques used to reduce the effect of natural and man-made noise on radio communications.
Anti-Jam - Measures ensuring that intended transmitted information can be received despite deliberate jamming attempts.
Anti-Node - A point in a standing wave at which the amplitude is a maximum.
Antireflection Coating - A thin, dielectric or metallic film, or several such films, applied to an optical surface to reduce its reflectance and thereby increase its transmittance.Note: For minimum reflection of a normal incident wave of a single wavelength, the antireflection coating may consist of a single layer and must have (a) a refractive index equal to the square root of the refractive indices of the materials bounding the coating, and (b) a thickness equal to one-quarter the wavelength in question (i.e., the wavelength within the material of which the coating consists). For minimum reflection of multiple wavelengths, additional layers must be added.
Anti-Spoof - 1. Measures taken to prevent an unauthorized person/entity from impersonating an authorized person/entity to gain access to a data system. [DoJ] 2. Measures preventing an opponent's participation in an information system (IS).
Anti-Virus Program - A computer program designed to detect computer-file viruses and possibly to suggest or take corrective action. Synonym vaccine program.
Anycall - In adaptive high-frequency (HF) radio automatic link establishment, a broadcast in which (a) the called stations are unspecified, (b) stations receiving the call stop scanning, and (c) each station automatically responds in pseudorandom time slots.
AP - Abbreviation for anomalous propagation.
APC - Abbreviation for adaptive predictive coding.
APD - Abbreviation for avalanche photodiode. Note: apd and a.p.d. are also used.
Aperiodic Antenna - An antenna designed to have an approximately constant input impedance over a wide range of frequencies. Note: Examples of aperiodic antennas include terminated rhombic antennas and wave antennas. Synonym nonresonant antenna.
Aperture - 1. In a directional antenna, the portion of a plane surface very near the antenna normal to the direction of maximum radiant intensity, through which the major part of the radiation passes. 2. In an acoustic device that launches a sound wave, the passageway, determined by the size of a hole in the inelastic material and the wavelength.
Aperture Correction - 1. In a scanned image system, electrical compensation for the distortion introduced by the limiting size of a scanning aperture. 2. In television technology, restoration of the depth of modulation to the higher (i.e., higher Fourier) frequency components of the video signal, with the objective of achieving a subjective improvement in image quality. Note: Aperture correction is required to compensate for the properties of the camera lens, optical beam-splitting installation, and camera tube, all of which contribute to a reduced signal at higher spatial frequencies. Problems requiring aperture correction arise in a scanning system when the frequency response falls off as the effective wavelength of the detail to be resolved in the image approaches the dimension of the scanning aperture and becomes zero when that effective wavelength equals the dimension of the scanning aperture.
Aperture Distortion - In facsimile, the distortion of the recorded image caused by the shape and finite size of the scanning and recording apertures. Note: The distortion may occur in one or more attributes of the recorded image, such as in resolution, density, or shape.
Aperture Illumination - 1. The field distribution, in amplitude and phase, over the antenna physical aperture. 2. The phase and amplitude of the element feed voltages or the distribution of the currents in an array of elements.
Aperture-to-Medium Coupling Loss - The difference between the theoretical gain of a very large antenna, such as the antennas in beyond-the-horizon microwave links, and the gain that can be realized in operation. Note 1: Aperture-to-medium coupling loss is related to the ratio of the scatter angle to the antenna beam width. Note 2: The "very large antennas" are referred to in wavelengths; thus, this loss can apply to line-of-sight systems also.
Apogee - In an orbit of a satellite orbiting the Earth, the point that is farthest from the gravitational center of the Earth.
Apogee Altitude - See altitude of the apogee or of the perigee.
App - Abbreviation for application, application software.
Apparent Power - In alternating-current power transmission and distribution, the product of the rms voltage and amperage. Note 1: When the applied voltage and the current are in phase with one another, the apparent power is equal to the effective power, i.e., the real power delivered to or consumed by the load. If the current lags or leads the applied voltage, the apparent power is greater than the effective power. Note 2: Only effective power, i.e., the real power delivered to or consumed by the load, is expressed in watts. Apparent power is properly expressed only in volt-amperes, never watts. See diagram under effective power.
Applet - A small, self-contained computer program that usually performs a task as part of, or under the control of, a larger software application. For example, most modern World Wide Web browsers are capable of making use of applets written in the Java programming language to perform simple tasks such as display animations or more complex tasks such as spreadsheet and database operations.
Application - Software that performs a specific task or function, such as word-processing, creation of spreadsheets, generation of graphics, facilitating electronic mail, etc. Synonym application software.
Application Association - A cooperative relationship between two application entities, formed by their exchange of application protocol control information through their use of presentation services.
Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) - A set of freely downloadable program utilities and related documents from Microsoft for ensuring compatibility among application programs in Windows operating systems, especially in a large network environment. The Toolkit can also be used to diagnose and fix problems that may be related to compatibility. The Toolkit can be used for applications running in Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 or later, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003. Microsoft says that the tools can be used to resolve over 200 symptoms of problems. The Toolkit can be downloaded from Microsoft's Web site or ordered for delivery on a CD. The Analyzer and the Verifier can also be downloaded or ordered separately.
Application Entity (AE) - The system-independent application activities that are made available as application services to the application agent, e.g., a set of application service elements that together perform all or part of the communication aspects of an application process.
Application Layer - Layer 7 of the Open Systems Interconnection--Reference Model. The highest layer. This layer interfaces directly to and performs common application services for the application processes; it also issues requests to the Presentation Layer. The common application services provide semantic conversion between associated application processes. Note: Examples of common application services of general interest include the virtual file, virtual terminal, and job transfer and manipulation protocols. See Open Systems Interconnection--Reference Model.
Application Platform - Synonym platform.
Application Program - See application. Software that performs a specific task or function, such as word-processing, creation of spreadsheets, generation of graphics, facilitating electronic mail, etc.
Application Program Interface (API) - A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting network services.
Application Protocol - A set of rules and formats (semantic and syntactic) that determines the communication behavior of application entities in the performance of application functions.
Application Service Element (ASE) - A coherent set of integrated functions to help accomplish application communication, e.g., within an application entity.
Application Software - Synonym application.
Applique - Circuit components added to an existing system to provide additional or alternate functions. Note: Applique may be used to modify carrier telephone equipment designed for ringdown manual operation to allow for use between points having dial equipment.
Appointment Book - A small (pocket-size or smaller), specialized, portable computing device, with a self-contained power source, designed to (a) accept as inputs; (b) store; and (c) read out, user-designated information, usually appointments, telephone numbers, etc.
Approved Circuit - Deprecated synonym for protected distribution system.
Aramid Yarn - Generic name for a tough synthetic yarn that is often used in optical cable construction for the strength member, protective braid, and/or rip cord for jacket removal.
Architecture - See computer architecture, network architecture.
Archive File - A software file that has been set aside, often in a redundant storage medium, as a security measure or for later retrieval, e.g., for research or verification.
Archiving - The storing of files, records, and other data for reference and alternative backup.
Area Broadcast Shift - The changing from listening to transmissions intended for one broadcast area to listening to transmissions intended for another broadcast area. Note 1: An area broadcast shift may occur when a ship or aircraft crosses the boundary between listening areas. Note 2: Shift times, on the date a ship or aircraft is expected to pass into another area, must be strictly observed or the ship or aircraft will miss messages intended for it. Synonym radio watch shift.
Area Code - In the North American telephone system, an area code is a three-digit code delineating a "toll" area in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Area codes are distributed according to the North American Number Plan (NANP). The area code is also referred to as a Number Plan Area or NPA. See access code, code, country code, NXX code. Also See Telephone Area Codes of North America.
Area Codes for North America - Telephone Area Codes of North America - Tables showing these values are included: Area Code, Country, State or Province, Area or City and Date of Introduction.
Country State or
Area or City
Date of Introduction
201 USA New Jersey Jersey City 1952 202 USA District of Columbia (Washington DC) (Every Location) 1952 203 USA Connecticut Waterbury, New Haven, Bridgeport, Stamford 1952 204 Canada Manitoba (Every Location) 1952 205 USA Alabama Montgomery, Selma, Jackson 1952 206 USA Washington Seattle 1952 207 USA Maine (Every Location) 1952 208 USA Idaho (Every Location) 1952 209 USA California Stockton, Merced 1958 210 USA Texas San Antonio 1992 November 01 212 USA New York New York 1952 213 USA California Los Angeles 1952 214 USA Texas Dallas 1952 215 USA Pennsylvania Philadelphia 1952 216 USA Ohio Cleveland 1952 217 USA Illinois Springfield, Decatur, Champaign 1952 218 USA Minnesota Duluth, Brainerd, Grand Rapids, International Falls 1952 219 USA Indiana Fort Wayne, South Bend, Gary 1952 225 USA Louisiana Baton Rouge, New Roads 1998 August 17 228 USA Mississippi Gulfport, Pascagoula 1997 September 15 229 USA Georgia Albany, Americus, Bainbridge, Valdosta 2000 August 1 231 USA Michigan Traverse City, Muskegon, Ludington 1999 June 05 234 USA Ohio Akron, Canton, Youngstown 2000 October 30 240 USA Maryland Frederick, Hagerstown, Cumberland 1997 June 1 242 The Bahamas (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 October 1 246 Barbados (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 July 01 248 USA Michigan Troy 1997 May 10 250 Canada British Columbia non-Vancouver area 1996 October 19 252 USA North Carolina Greenville, Kitty Hawk 1998 March 22 253 USA Washington Tacoma 1997 April 27 254 USA Texas Waco, Killeen 1997 May 25 256 USA Alabama Huntsville 1998 March 23 262 USA Wisconsin Racine, West Bend 1999 September 25 264 Anguilla (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 March 31 267 USA Pennsylvania Philadelphia 1999 June 05 268 Antigua and Barbuda (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 April 01 270 USA Kentucky Paducah, Bowling Green, Owensboro 1999 April 19 281 USA Texas Houston 1996 November 02 284 British Virgin Islands (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 October 01 301 USA Maryland Frederick, Hagerstown, Cumberland 1952 302 USA Delaware (Every Location) 1952 303 USA Colorado Denver, Boulder 1952 304 USA West Virginia (Every Location) 1952 305 USA Florida Miami, Key West 1952 306 Canada Saskatchewan (Every Location) 1952 307 USA Wyoming (Every Location) 1952 308 USA Nebraska Scottsbluff, North Platte 1954 309 USA Illinois Moline, Peoria 1957 310 USA California West Los Angeles, Torrance, Malibu 1991 November 02 312 USA Illinois Chicago 1952 313 USA Michigan Detroit 1952 314 USA Missouri Saint Louis 1952 315 USA New York Syracuse, Utica, Watertown 1952 316 USA Kansas Wichita, Parsons, Great Bend 1952 317 USA Indiana Indianapolis 1952 318 USA Louisiana Shreveport, Monroe, Alexandria 1957 319 USA Iowa Dubuque, Davenport, Iowa City, Burlington 1952 320 USA Minnesota Saint Cloud, Morris, Hutchinson 1996 March 17 321 USA Florida Orlando 1999 November 01 323 USA California Los Angeles 1998 June 13 330 USA Ohio Akron, Canton, Youngstown 1996 March 09 334 USA Alabama Birmingham, Tuscaloosa 1995 January 15 336 USA North Carolina Winston Salem 1997 December 15 337 USA Louisiana Lafayette, Lake Charles 1999 October 11 340 Virgin Islands (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 June 01 345 Cayman Islands (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 September 01 347 USA New York Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island 1999 October 01 352 USA Florida Gainesville, Ocala 1995 December 03 360 USA Washington Olympia, Bellingham, Aberdeen 1995 January 15 361 USA Texas Corpus Christi, Victoria 1999 February 13 385 USA Utah Provo, Ogden (UNK) 401 USA Rhode Island (Every Location) 1952 402 USA Nebraska Omaha, Lincoln 1952 403 Canada Alberta Calgary, southern portion 1952 404 USA Georgia Atlanta 1952 405 USA Oklahoma Oklahoma City, Edmond 1952 406 USA Montana (Every Location) 1952 407 USA Florida Orlando 1988 April 16 408 USA California San Jose, Sunnyvale, Los Gatos 1959 409 USA Texas Beaumont, Galveston 1983/03 410 USA Maryland Baltimore, Cambridge 1991 November 01 412 USA Pennsylvania Pittsburgh 1952 413 USA Massachusetts Springfield, Pittsfield 1952 414 USA Wisconsin Milwaukee 1952 415 USA California San Francisco, Novato, San Rafael 1952 416 Canada Ontario Toronto 1952 417 USA Missouri Springfield, Joplin 1952 418 Canada Quebec Quebec 1952 419 USA Ohio Toledo, Sandusky, Bowling Green 1952 423 USA Tennessee Chattanooga, Sweetwater, Bristol 1995 September 11 425 USA Washington Seattle area 1997 April 27 435 USA Utah Logan, Blanding, Richfield 1997 September 21 440 USA Ohio Ashtabula, Elyria 1997 August 16 441 Bermuda (Every Location) (Every Location) 1995 October 01 443 USA Maryland Baltimore, Cambridge 1997 June 01 450 Canada Quebec Laval 1998 June 13 456 (Not Applicable) (Every Location) Inbound International (UNK) 469 USA Texas Dallas, Plano 1999 July01 473 Grenada (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 October 31 478 USA Georgia Macon, Warner Robins, Swainsboro 2000 August 01 480 USA Arizona eastern Phoenix area, Chandler 1999 March 01 484 USA Pennsylvania Allentown, Reading 1999 June 05 500 (All Values) (Every Location) Personal Communication Service (UNK) 501 USA Arkansas Little Rock, Fayetteville, Hot Springs 1952 502 USA Kentucky Louisville, Frankfort 1952 503 USA Oregon Portland, Salem, Tillamoon, Astoria 1952 504 USA Louisiana New Orleans, Houma 1952 505 USA New Mexico (Every Location) 1952 506 Canada New Brunswick (Every Location) 1955 507 USA Minnesota Rochester, Mankato, Marshall, Worthington 1954 508 USA Massachusetts Worcester, Attleboro, New Bedford, Hyannis 1988 July16 509 USA Washington Spokane, Yakima, Walla Walla 1957 510 USA California Oakland, Hayward 1991 September 02 512 USA Texas Austin 1952 513 USA Ohio Cincinnati, Middletown 1952 514 Canada Quebec Montreal 1952 515 USA Iowa Des Moines, Fort Dodge 1952 516 USA New York Elmont 1952 517 USA Michigan Lansing, Jackson, Alpena 1952 518 USA New York Albany, Saranac Lake, Plattsburgh 1952 519 Canada Ontario Windsor, London 1953 520 USA Arizona non-Phoenix areas 1995 March 19 530 USA California Redding, Chico, Alturas 1997 November 01 540 USA Virginia Roanoke, Harrisonburg, Fredricksburg, Winchester 1995 July15 541 USA Oregon Eugene, Bend, Medford, Burns 1995 November 05 559 USA California Fresno 1998 November 14 561 USA Florida West Palm Beach, Boca Raton 1996 May 13 562 USA California Long Beach 1997 January 25 570 USA Pennsylvania Scranton, Williamsport 1998 December 05 571 USA Virginia Alexandria 2000 March 01 573 USA Missouri Jefferson City, Hannibal 1996 January 07 580 USA Oklahoma Enid, Woodward, Lawton 1997 November 01 600 Canada (Every Location) Canadian Services (UNK) 601 USA Mississippi Jackson, Mc Comb 1952 602 USA Arizona Phoenix 1952 603 USA New Hampshire (Every Location) 1952 604 Canada British Columbia Vancouver area 1952 605 USA South Dakota (Every Location) 1952 606 USA Kentucky London, Morehead, Pikeville 1954 607 USA New York Elmira, Binghamton 1954 608 USA Wisconsin Madison, La Crosse 1955 609 USA New Jersey Trenton, Atlantic City, Brown Mills 1958 610 USA Pennsylvania Allentown, Reading 1994 January 08 612 USA Minnesota Minneapolis 1952 613 Canada Ontario Ottawa 1952 614 USA Ohio Columbus 1952 615 USA Tennessee Nashville 1954 616 USA Michigan Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids 1952 617 USA Massachusetts Boston 1952 618 USA Illinois Mount Vernon, Carbondale 1952 619 USA California San Diego 1982/11 623 USA Arizona western Phoenix area, Peoria, Buckeye 1999 March 01 626 USA California Pasadena 1997 June 14 630 USA Illinois Aurora 1996 August 03 631 USA New York eastern Long Island 1999 November 01 636 USA Missouri Union, Chesterfield 1999 May 22 641 USA Iowa Mason City, Creston 2000 July09 646 USA New York New York 1999 July 01 647 Canada Ontario Toronto (UNK) 649 Turks and Caicos Islands (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 June 01 650 USA California Palo Alto, San Mateo 1997 August 02 651 USA Minnesota Saint Paul, Lindstrom, Red Wing 1998 July 12 660 USA Missouri Macon, Marshall, Sedalia 1997 October 12 661 USA California Bakersfield 1999 February 13 662 USA Mississippi Tupelo, Columbus, Greenville 1999 April 19 664 Montserrat (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 July 01 670 Northern Mariana Islands (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 July 01 671 Guam (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 July 01 678 USA Georgia Atlanta 1998 January 06 682 USA Texas Fort Worth 2000 October 07 700 (Not Applicable) (Every Location) Interexchange Carrier Services (UNK) 701 USA North Dakota (Every Location) 1952 702 USA Nevada Las Vegas 1952 703 USA Virginia Alexandria 1952 704 USA North Carolina Charlotte, Kingstown 1952 705 Canada Ontario Sudbury, Sault Ste Marie 1957 706 USA Georgia Athens, Augusta, Toccoa, Dalton, Rome 1992 May 03 707 USA California Santa Rosa, Ukiah, Eureka 1959 708 USA Illinois Chicago Heights 1989/11 709 Canada Newfoundland (Every Location) 1962 710 USA (Every Location) US Government (UNK) 712 USA Iowa Sioux City, Council Bluffs 1952 713 USA Texas Houston 1952 714 USA California Orange, Huntington Beach 1952 715 USA Wisconsin Wausau, Eau Claire 1952 716 USA New York Buffalo, Rochester, Jamestown 1952 717 USA Pennsylvania Harrisburg, Gettysburg 1952 718 USA New York Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island 1984 September 02 719 USA Colorado Colorado Springs, Pueblo 1988 March 05 720 USA Colorado Denver, Boulder 1998 June 01 724 USA Pennsylvania New Castle, Uniontown 1998 February 01 727 USA Florida Clearwater 1998 July 01 732 USA New Jersey Lakewood, New Brunswick, Neptune 1997 June 01 734 USA Michigan Ann Arbor 1997 December 13 740 USA Ohio Cambridge, Jackson, Lancaster, Marietta 1997 December 06 757 USA Virginia Norfolk 1996 July 01 758 Saint Lucia (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 July 01 760 USA California Indio, Ridgecrest, Bishop, Blythe 1997 March 22 763 USA Minnesota Maple Grove 2000 February 27 765 USA Indiana Lafayette, Marion, Muncie, Richmond 1997 February 01 767 Dominica (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 October 01 770 USA Georgia Roswell, Marietta, Cedartown, Griffin 1995 August 01 773 USA Illinois Chicago 1996 October 12 775 USA Nevada Reno, Carson City, Elko, Ely, Tonopah 1998 December 12 780 Canada Alberta Edmonton, northern portion 1999 January 25 781 USA Massachusetts Norwood, Weymouth, Saugus 1997 September 01 784 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (Every Location) (Every Location) 1998 June 01 785 USA Kansas Topeka, Saline 1997 July 20 786 USA Florida Miami 1998 March 01 787 Puerto Rico (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 March 01 800 (All Values) (Every Location) Toll-Free (UNK) 801 USA Utah Salt Lake City 1952 802 USA Vermont (Every Location) 1952 803 USA South Carolina Columbia, Sumter 1952 804 USA Virginia Richmond, Lynchburg, Danville 1973 June 24 805 USA California Thousand Oaks, San Luis Obispo, Lompoc 1957 806 USA Texas Amarillo, Lubbock 1957 807 Canada Ontario Thunder Bay 1962 808 USA Hawaii (Every Location) 1957 809 Dominican Republic (Every Location) (Every Location) 1958 810 USA Michigan Flint, Port Huron 1993 December 01 812 USA Indiana Terre Haute, Bloomington, New Albany, Evansville 1952 813 USA Florida Tampa 1953 814 USA Pennsylvania Erie, Warren, Altoona, Johnstown 1952 815 USA Illinois Rickford, Freeport, De Kalb, La Salle 1952 816 USA Missouri Kansas City, Saint Joseph 1952 817 USA Texas Fort Worth 1953 818 USA California Glendale, San Fernando 1984/01 819 Canada Quebec Hull, Sherbrooke 1957 828 USA North Carolina Asheville 1998 March 22 830 USA Texas Uvalde 1997 July 07 831 USA California Salinas, Santa Cruz 1998 July 11 832 USA Texas Houston 1999 January 16 843 USA South Carolina Charleston, Myrtle Beach, Florence 1998 March 22 845 USA New York Poughkeepsie, Middletown 2000 June 05 847 USA Illinois Waukegan, Des Plaines 1996 January 20 850 USA Florida Tallahassee 1997 June 23 856 USA New Jersey Cherry Hill, Vineland 1999 June 12 858 USA California Solano Beach, northern San Diego area 1999 June 12 859 USA Kentucky Lexington 2000 April 01 860 USA Connecticut Hartford, Norwich 1995 August 28 863 USA Florida Avon Park, Clewiston 1999 September 20 864 USA South Carolina Greenville, Spartanburg, Anderson 1995 December 03 865 USA Tennessee Knoxville 1999 November 01 866 (All Values) (Every Location) Toll-Free 2000 July 29 867 Canada Northwest Territories (Every Location) 1997 October 21 867 Canada Nunavut (Every Location) 1997 October 21 867 Canada Yukon Territory (Every Location) 1997 October 21 868 Trinidad and Tobago (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 June 01 869 Saint Kitts and Nevis (Every Location) (Every Location) 1996 October 01 870 USA Arkansas Jonesboro, Pine Bluff 1997 April 14 876 Jamaica (Every Location) (Every Location) 1997 May 01 877 (All Values) (Every Location) Toll-Free 1998 April 08 880 (All Values) (Every Location) Paid Toll-Free Service (800) (UNK) 881 (All Values) (Every Location) Paid Toll-Free Service (888) (UNK) 882 (All Values) (Every Location) Paid Toll-Free Service (877) (UNK) 888 (All Values) (Every Location) Toll-Free 1996 March 01 900 (All Values) (Every Location) Premium Services (UNK) 901 USA Tennessee Memphis, Jackson, Union City 1952 902 Canada Nova Scotia (Every Location) 1952 902 Canada Prince Edward Island (Every Location) 1952 903 USA Texas Tyler, Sherman 1990 November 04 904 USA Florida Jacksonville 1965/07 905 Canada Ontario Hamilton area 1993 October 04 906 USA Michigan Sault Ste. Marie, Escanaba, Marquette 1961 907 USA Alaska (Every Location) 1957 908 USA New Jersey Washington 1991 January 01 909 USA California Pomona, San Bernadino, Temecula 1992 November 14 910 USA North Carolina Fayetteville, Wilmington, Jacksonville 1993 November 14 912 USA Georgia Waycross, Brunswick, Savannah, Vidalia 1954 913 USA Kansas Kansas City, Overland Park 1952 914 USA New York White Plains 1952 915 USA Texas El Paso, Alpine, Midland, Abilene 1952 916 USA California Sacramento 1952 917 USA New York New York, Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island 1992 January 01 918 USA Oklahoma Tulsa, Mcalester, Bartlesville 1953 919 USA North Carolina Raleigh, Durham 1954 920 USA Wisconsin Green Bay, Oshkosh, Sheboygan 1997 July 26 925 USA California Concord, Pleasanton 1998 March 14 931 USA Tennessee Columbia, Manchester, Clarksville, Cookeville 1997 September 15 936 USA Texas Huntsville, Lufkin 2000 February 19 937 USA Ohio Dayton, Springfield, Hillsboro 1996 September 28 940 USA Texas Vernon, Wichita Falls 1997 May 25 941 USA Florida Naples, Fort Meyers 1995 May 28 949 USA California Irvine, Laguna Niguel 1998 April 18 952 USA Minnesota Bloomington 2000 February 27 954 USA Florida Fort Lauderdale 1995 September 11 956 USA Texas Mcallen, Brownsville 1997 July 07 970 USA Colorado Grand Junction, Steamboat Springs, Fort Collins 1995 April 02 971 USA Oregon Portland, Salem 2000 October 01 972 USA Texas Dallas, Plano 1996 September 14 973 USA New Jersey Paterson, Sussex 1997 June 01 978 USA Massachusetts Peabody, Fitchburg 1997 September 01 979 USA Texas Wharton 2000 February 19
Area Loss - When optical fibers are joined by a splice or a pair of mated connectors, a power loss that is caused by any mismatch in size or shape of the cross section of the cores of the mating fibers. Note 1: Any of the above conditions may allow light from the core of the "transmitting" fiber to enter the cladding of the "receiving" fiber, where it is quickly lost. Note 2: Area loss may be dependent on the direction of propagation. For example, in coupling a signal from an optical fiber having a smaller core to an otherwise identical one having a larger core, there will be no area loss, but in the opposite direction, there will be area loss.
Argument - 1. An independent variable. 2. Any value of an independent variable. Note: Examples of arguments include search keys, numbers that identify the location of a data item in a table, and the in sin .
Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) - A part of a computer that performs arithmetic, logic, and related operations.
Arithmetic Overflow - 1. In a digital computer, the condition that occurs when a calculation produces a result that is greater than a given register or storage location can store or represent. 2. In a digital computer, the amount that a calculated value is greater than a given register or storage location can store or represent. Note: The overflow may be placed at another location. Synonym [loosely] overflow.
Arithmetic Register - A register that holds the operands or the results of operations such as arithmetic operations, logic operations, and shifts.
Arithmetic Shift - A shift, applied to the representation of a number in a fixed radix numeration system and in a fixed-point representation system, and in which only the characters representing the fixed-point part of the number are moved. An arithmetic shift is usually equivalent to multiplying the number by a positive or a negative integral power of the radix, except for the effect of any rounding; compare the logical shift with the arithmetic shift, especially in the case of floating-point representation.
Arithmetic Underflow - In a digital computer, the condition that occurs when a calculation produces a non-zero result that is less than the smallest non-zero quantity that a given register or storage location can store or represent.
Arithmetic Unit - In a processor, the part that performs arithmetic operations; sometimes the unit performs both arithmetic and logic operations.
Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS) - A radio broadcasting service that is operated by and for the personnel of the armed services in the area covered by the broadcast. Note: An example of an AFRS is the radio service operated by the U.S. Army for U.S. and allied military personnel on duty in overseas areas.
Armor - Of a communications cable, a component intended to protect the critical internal components, e.g., buffer tubes or fibers, or electrical conductors, from damage from external mechanical attack, e.g., rodent attack or abrasion. Note: Armor usually takes the form of a steel or aluminum tape wrapped about an inner jacket that covers the critical internal components. An outer jacket usually covers the armor.
ARP - Abbreviation for address resolution protocol.
ARPANET - Abbreviation for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. A packet-switching network used by the Department of Defense, later evolved into the Internet.
ARQ - Abbreviation for automatic repeat-request. Error control for data transmission in which the receiver detects transmission errors in a message and automatically requests a retransmission from the transmitter. Note: Usually, when the transmitter receives the ARQ, the transmitter retransmits the message until it is either correctly received or the error persists beyond a predetermined number of retransmissions. Synonyms error-detecting-and-feedback system, repeat-request system.
Array - 1. An arrangement of elements in one or more dimensions. 2. In a programming language, an aggregate that consists of data objects with identical attributes, each of which may be uniquely referenced by subscription.
Array Processor - A processor capable of executing instructions in which the operands may be arrays rather than data elements. Synonym vector processor.
Arrester - A device that protects hardware, such as systems, subsystems, circuits, and equipment, from voltage or current surges produced by lightning or electromagnetic pulses. Note: If the hardware is adequately protected, associated software may also be adequately protected. Synonyms surge protective device, surge suppressor.
ARS - Abbreviation for automatic route selection.
Article - Synonym posting.
Articulation Index - A measure of the intelligibility of voice signals, expressed as a percentage of speech units that are understood by the listener when heard out of context. Note: The articulation index is affected by noise, interference, and distortion.
Articulation Score (AS) - A subjective measure of the intelligibility of a voice system in terms of the percentage of words correctly understood over a channel perturbed by interference. Note: Articulation scores have been experimentally obtained as functions of varying word content, bandwidth, audio signal-to-noise ratio and the experience of the talkers and listeners involved.
Artifact - In facsimile or television, a defect or distortion of the image, introduced along the sequence from origination and image capture to final display. Note 1: Artifacts may arise from the overload of channel capacity by excess signal bandwidth. Note 2: In general, artifacts may result from (a) sampling effects in temporal, spatial, or frequency domains, (b) processing by the transfer functions, (c) compromises and inadequacies in the system employed, (d) cascading of minor defects, or (e) any other departure of the total system from "complete transparency."
Artificial Intelligence (AI) - The capability of a device to perform functions that are normally associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning and optimization through experience. Note: AI is the branch of computer science that attempts to approximate the results of human reasoning by organizing and manipulating factual and heuristic knowledge. Areas of AI activity include expert systems, natural language understanding, speech recognition, vision, and robotics.
Artificial Transmission Line - A four-terminal electrical network, i.e. an electrical circuit, that has the characteristic impedance, transmission time delay, phase shift, and/or other parameter(s) of a real transmission line and therefore can be used to simulate a real transmission line in one or more of these respects. Synonym [loosely] art line.
Art Line - Synonym [loosely] artificial transmission line.
ARU - Abbreviation for audio response unit.
ASCII (pronounced: ask-ee) - ASCII is an acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a code that represents the most basic letters of the Roman alphabet, numbers, and other characters used in computing. ASCII characters allow us to communicate with computers, which use their own language called binary made up of 0s and 1s. ASCII files are also called text files.
ASCII is the standard code used for information interchange among data processing systems, data communications systems, and associated equipment in the United States. Note 1: The ASCII character set contains 128 coded characters. Note 2: Each ASCII character is a 7-bit coded unique character; 8 bits when a parity check bit is included. Note 3: The ASCII character set consists of control characters and graphic characters. Note 4: When considered simply as a set of 128 unique bit patterns, or 256 with a parity bit, disassociated from the character equivalences in national implementations, the ASCII may be considered as an alphabet used in machine languages. Note 5: The ASCII is the U.S. version of International Reference Alphabet (IRA) No. 5 (formerly International Alphabet No. 5, or "IA5") as specified in ITU-T Recommendation T.50.
ASP - Abbreviation for adjunct service point.
Aspect Ratio - 1. In facsimile or television, the ratio of the width to the height of a scanning field or image. Note: For example, the classical NTSC television standard specifies an aspect ratio of 4:3, and the new high-definition television standard specifies 16:9. - For 4:3, the traditional TV aspect ratio, a 32-inch TV would be 25½ inches wide and 19 inches tall. A 16:9 widescreen 32-inch TV is closer to a movie screen than a traditional TV, and would be 28 inches wide and 16 inches tall. 2. The ratio of the width to the height of any video or scanned image display.
ASR ( Automated Speech Recognition) - Is a technology that allows users of information systems to speak entries rather than punching numbers on a keypad. ASR is used primarily to provide information and to forward telephone calls.
In recent years, ASR has become popular in the customer service departments of large corporations. It is also used by some government agencies and other organizations. Basic ASR systems recognize single-word entries such as yes-or-no responses and spoken numerals. This makes it possible for people to work their way through automated menus without having to enter dozens of numerals manually with no tolerance for error. In a manual-entry situation, a customer might hit the wrong key after having entered 20 or 30 numerals at intervals previously in the menu, and give up rather than call again and start over. ASR virtually eliminates this problem.
Sophisticated ASR systems allow the user to enter direct queries or responses, such as a request for driving directions or the telephone number of a hotel in a particular town. This shortens the menu navigation process by reducing the number of decision points. It also reduces the number of instructions that the user must receive and comprehend.
For institutions that rely heavily on customer service, such as airlines and insurance companies, ASR makes it possible to reduce the number of human call-center employees. Those people can then be trained for other jobs that are more profitable and interesting, such as complaint resolution, customer retention, or sales.
The technology of speech recognition has been around for some time. It is improving, but problems still exist. An ASR system cannot always correctly recognize the input from a person who speaks with a heavy accent or dialect, and it has major problems with people who combine words from two languages by force of habit. Marginal cell-phone connections can cause the system to misinterpret the input. And, although the cost is gradually diminishing, ASR systems are still too expensive for some organizations.
Assemble - To translate a computer program expressed in an assembly language into a machine language.
Assembler: A computer program that is used to assemble. Synonym assembly program.
Assembly - In logistics, an item forming a portion of an equipment that can be provisioned and replaced as an entity and which normally incorporates replaceable parts or groups of parts.
Assembly Language - A computer-oriented language (a) in which instructions are symbolic and usually in one-to-one correspondence with sets of machine language instructions and (b) that may provide other facilities, such as the use of macro instructions. Synonym computer-dependent language.
Assembly Program - Synonym assembler.
Assembly Time - The elapsed time taken for the execution of an assembler.
Asset - 1. In security, a resource or information that is to be protected. 2. Any system or component (e.g., subsystem, hardware, firmware, software, database, or interconnection communications network or facility) that is part of a communications system or an information system.
Assigned Frequency - 1. The center of the assigned frequency band assigned to a station. [RR] 2. The frequency of the center of the radiated bandwidth. Note: The frequency of the rf carrier, whether suppressed or radiated, is usually given in parentheses following the assigned frequency, and is the frequency appearing in the dial settings of rf equipment intended for single-sideband or independent-sideband transmission. 3. The frequency coinciding with the center of an authorized bandwidth of emission. [47CFR] 4. The center of the frequency band assigned to a station.
Assigned Frequency Band - The frequency band within which the emission of a station is authorized; the width of the band equals the necessary bandwidth plus twice the absolute value of the frequency tolerance. Where space stations are concerned, the assigned frequency band includes twice the maximum Doppler shift that may occur in relation to any point of the Earth's surface.
Assignment - For NS/EP, the designation of priority level (s).
Assignment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel) - Authorization given by an administration for a radio station to use a radio frequency or radio frequency channel under specified conditions.
Assistive Technology - According to the United States Assistive Technology Act of 1998, assistive technology (also called adaptive technology) refers to any "product, device, or equipment, whether acquired commercially, modified or customized, that is used to maintain, increase, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities." Common computer-related assistive technology products include screen magnifiers, large-key keyboards, alternative input devices such as touch screen displays, over-sized trackballs and joysticks, speech recognition programs, and text readers.
Associated Common-Channel Signaling - Common-channel signaling in which the signal channel is associated with a specific trunk group and terminates at the same pair of switches as the trunk group. Note: In associated common-channel signaling, the signaling is usually accomplished by using the same facilities as the associated trunk group.
Associated Mode of Signaling - The mode in which messages for a signaling relation involving two adjacent signaling points are conveyed over a directly interconnecting signaling link.
Associative Storage - 1. A storage device whose storage locations are identified by their contents, or by a part of their contents, rather than by their names or positions. Note: Associative storage can also refer to this process as well as to the device. Synonym content-addressable storage. 2. Storage that supplements another storage.
Assurance - 1. Grounds for confidence that an information-technology (IT) product or system meets its security objectives. 2. In INFOSEC, see information assurance.
Asymmetrical Modulator - Synonym unbalanced modulator. A modulator in which the modulation factor is different for the alternate half-cycles of the carrier.
Asymmetric Compression - A data compression technique that requires more processing capability to compress than to decompress. Note: Asymmetric compression is typically used for the mass distribution of programs on media such as CD ROM, where significant expense can be incurred for the production and compression of data but the retrieval (or the playback) system must be low in cost.
Asymmetric Cryptographic Algorithm - A cryptographic formula that uses two related keys—a public key and a private key —each of which has the characteristic algorithm that, given the public key, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private key.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): 1. An access technology that allows voice and high-speed data to be sent simultaneously over local exchange service copper facilities; the technology supports data rates of up to 1.544 Mb/s when receiving data (downstream rate) and up to 256 kb/s when sending data (upstream rate). 2. A modem technology that provides enhanced and affordable access to the Internet, live video, and a wide variety of other multimedia broadband services over existing copper twisted-pair wirelines; usually the ADSL operates with different data rates in the two directions.
Asymmetric Encryption - An encryption system that utilizes two keys, one called a public key (which is known to both the sender and the recipient of encrypted data), and the other, called a private key (known only to the individual sending the data). Note: Data are encrypted with the private key and decrypted with the public key. Asymmetric encryption allows for the secure transfer of data.
Asynchronous Communications System - A data communications system that uses asynchronous operation. Note: The time spacing between successive data characters or blocks may be of arbitrary duration. Synonym start-stop system.
Asynchronous Multiplexed Transmission System - A multiplexed transmission system in which the rates of the carrier and its tributaries are not traceable to the same master clocking source. Note: In this type of system, extra signal elements are usually appended to the individual tributary signals for the purpose of interleaving them at a rate consistent with the carrier rate.
Asynchronous Network - A network in which the clocks do not need to be synchronous or mesochronous. Synonym nonsynchronous network.
Asynchronous Operation - 1. A sequence of operations in which operations are executed out of time coincidence with any event. 2. An operation that occurs without a regular or predictable time relationship to a specified event; e.g., the calling of an error diagnostic routine that may receive control at any time during the execution of a computer program. Synonym asynchronous working.
Asynchronous Time-Division Multiplexing (ATDM) - Time-division multiplexing in which asynchronous transmission is used.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) - A high-speed multiplexing and switching method utilizing fixed-length cells of 53 octets to support multiple types of traffic. Note: ATM, specified in international standards, is asynchronous in the sense that cells carrying user data need not be periodic.
Asynchronous Transmission - Data transmission in which the instant that each character, or block of characters, starts is arbitrary; once started, the time of occurrence of each signal representing a bit within the character, or block, has the same relationship to significant instants of a fixed time frame.
Asynchronous Working - Synonym asynchronous operation.
ATB - Abbreviation for all trunks busy.
AT Commands - A de facto standard for modem commands from an attached CPU, used in most 1,200 and 2,400 b/s modems.
ATDM - Abbreviation for asynchronous time-division multiplexing.
ATM - Abbreviation for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the international standard implementation of cell relay. It is defined to work over different physical media and at speeds ranging from 45-622 Mbps, with extensions to lower and higher speeds possible. Vendors are beginning to produce ATM network equipment and carriers are beginning to assemble ATM networks. Current service offerings are developmental in nature, however, and it is expected to take several years for the technology to mature. Significant infrastructure investments by carriers will be required to make ATM widely available.
ATM, sometimes called cell relay, is a high speed multiplexing and switching technology for data. An advanced packet switching scheme, ATM makes all its packets one length. These uniformly small packets or cells let data flow smoothly, like a collection of images on movie film, all moving through the projector at a constant frame rate. ATM also boasts improved error control compared to conventional packet switching, as well as numerous other features that now make it a core technology of data networks world wide. ATM can run over SONET or T-Carrier.
ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) Connection - A virtual channel connection (VCC) or a virtual path connection (VPC).
ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) Layer Connection - An association established by the ATM Layer to support communication between two or more ATM service users (i.e., two or more next higher layer entities or two or more ATM Management entities). The communication over an ATM Layer connection may be either bidirectional or unidirectional. When bidirectional, two virtual channel connections (VCCS) are used. When unidirectional, only one VCC is used. Note: In the case where there is ATM Layer connection associated ATM Layer Management (e.g., F5 Flow), the ATM Layer connection is bidirectional even if the user communication is unidirectional.
ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) Transport System - A transport system composed of a carrier system terminated by an ATM multiplexer at each end. The relationship between input and output, i.e., virtual circuits, cannot change on a per call basis, i.e., permanent virtual circuits only are supported. This device does not allow blocking or signal compression.
ATM Link (asynchronous transfer mode link) - A virtual path link (VPL) or a virtual channel link (VCL).
Atmospheric Duct - A horizontal layer in the lower atmosphere in which the vertical refractive index gradients are such that radio signals (a) are guided or focused within the duct, (b) tend to follow the curvature of the Earth, and (c) experience less attenuation in the ducts than they would if the ducts were not present. Note: The reduced refractive index at the higher altitudes bends the signals back toward the Earth. Signals in a higher refractive index layer, i.e., duct, tend to remain in that layer because of the reflection and refraction encountered at the boundary with a lower refractive index material.
Atmospheric Noise - Radio noise caused by natural atmospheric processes, primarily lightning discharges in thunderstorms.
ATM Switch (asynchronous transfer mode switch) - 1. With reference to both analog and digital interfaces, the ATM functional unit and technology that operates with analog 2-wire interfaces and standard digital line rates on both the inputs and the outputs, e.g., DS1 on the input and DS3 on the output, and which passes the cells received on the input to the output. The relationship between input and output, can change on a per call basis, i.e., switched virtual circuits must be supported and permanent virtual circuits may be supported. (For the purposes of this document it is assumed that the cell formation function associated with an analog input is performed before the switch function occurs. However, this definition is not intended to constrain technical implementations.) This device allows blocking and concentration. The switch function is also required to perform 2-wire to 4-wire conversion as well as A/D conversion. 2. With reference to digital interfaces only, the ATM functional unit and technology that operates with cell-based signals and over standard line rates on both the inputs and the outputs, e.g., DS1 on the input and DS3 on the output, and which passes the cells received on the input to the output. The relationship between input and output, can change on a per-call basis, i.e., switched virtual circuits must be supported and permanent virtual circuits may be supported. This device allows blocking and performs concentration.
Atomic Time - See International Atomic Time.
ATOW - Acronym for acquisition and tracking orderwire. A downlink circuit that provides a terminal with information regarding uplink acquisition and synchronization status.
ATSC - Advanced Television Systems Committee. This is the name of the DTV system used by broadcasters in the U.S.
ATSC Tuner - Often called an ATSC receiver or HDTV tuner, allows reception of DTV signals broadcast over-the-air by TV stations. May be integrated into a television set, VCR, DVR, or set-top box.
Attachment - In e-mail, a computer file that is transmitted with an e-mail message. Note: Attachments are converted by an e-mail manager program, or by an add-on, to a MIME (multipurpose Internet mail extension) or binary format. The files are recovered by the recipient's e-mail manager program or by an add-on into their original, usually application-specific, format.
Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) - In a local area network, the interface between the medium access unit (MAU) and the data terminal equipment within a data station.
Attack - 1. An attempt to violate computer security. Note: An example of an attack is malicious logic. 2. [An] intentional act of attempting to bypass one or more of the following security controls of an information system (IS): nonrepudiation, authentication, integrity, availability, or confidentiality.
Attack Time - The time between (a) the instant that a signal at the input of a device or circuit exceeds the activation threshold of the device or circuit and (b) the instant that the device or circuit reacts in a specified manner, or to a specified degree, to the input. Note: Attack time occurs in devices such as clippers, peak limiters, compressors, and voxes.
Attendant Access Loop - A switched circuit that provides an attendant with a manual means for call completion and control. Note: An attendant access loop might be given a specific telephone number. Synonym access loop.
Attendant Conference - A network-provided service feature that allows an attendant to establish a conference connection of three or more users.
Attendant Position - The part of a switching system used by an attendant, i.e., an operator, to assist users in call completion and use of special services.
Attention Character - In [a] trusted-computing-base (TCB) design, a character entered from a terminal that tells the TCB the user wants a secure communications path from the terminal to some trusted node to provide a secure service for the user.
Attention Signal - The attention signal to be used by AM, FM, and TV broadcast stations to actuate muted receivers for inter-station receipt of emergency cuing announcements and broadcasts involving a range of emergency contingencies posing a threat to the safety of life or property.
Attenuation - The decrease in intensity of a signal, beam, or wave as a result of absorption of energy and of scattering out of the path to the detector, but not including the reduction due to geometric spreading. Note 1: Attenuation is usually expressed in dB. Note 2: "Attenuation" is often used as a misnomer for " attenuation coefficient," which is expressed in dB per kilometer. Note 3: A distinction must be made as to whether the attenuation is that of signal power or signal electric field strength.
Attenuation Coefficient - The rate of diminution of average power with respect to distance along a transmission path. Note: The attenuation coefficient is often calculated as the sum of the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient. Synonym attenuation rate.
Attenuation Constant - 1. The real part of the propagation constant in any electromagnetic propagation medium. Note 1: The attenuation constant is usually expressed as a numerical value per unit length. Note 2: The attenuation constant may be calculated or experimentally determined for each medium. 2. For a particular propagation mode in an optical fiber, the real part of the axial propagation constant.
Attenuation Distortion - The difference in loss at specified frequencies relative to the loss at 1004 Hz, unless otherwise specified.
Attenuation-Limited Operation - The condition that prevails when attenuation, rather than bandwidth, limits the performance of a communications link.
Attenuation Rate - Synonym attenuation coefficient.
Attenuator - 1. In electrical systems, a network that reduces the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. Note 1: Electrical attenuators are usually passive devices. Note 2: The degree of attenuation may be fixed, continuously adjustable, or incrementally adjustable. Fixed attenuators are often called pads, especially in telephony. Note 3: The input and output impedances of an attenuator are usually matched to the impedances of the signal source and load, respectively. 2. In optical systems, a device that reduces the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. Note 1: Optical attenuators are usually passive devices. Note 2: The degree of attenuation may be fixed, continuously adjustable, or incrementally adjustable.
Attribute - 1. In database management, a property inherent in an entity or associated with that entity for database purposes. 2. In network management, a property of a managed object that has a value. Note 1: Mandatory initial values for attributes can be specified as part of the managed object class definition. Note 2: Attributes may be either mandatory or conditional.
Attribute Authority: In computer security, an entity that is trusted by at least two entities to create and assign attribute certificates.
Attribute Certificate - A set of attributes and a public key certificate identifier that are made unforgeable by use of the digital signature created with a private key.
ATV - Abbreviation for advanced television.
Audible - Synonym for audible ringing tone.
Audible Ringing - An audible signal (information tone) transmitted to the calling party when the called party is alerted.
Audible Ringing Tone - In telephony, a signal, usually consisting of an audio tone interrupted at a slow repetition rate, provided to a caller to indicate that the called-party instrument is being sent a ringing signal. Note: The audible ringing tone may be generated by the called-party servicing switch or by the calling-party servicing switch, but it is not generated by the called telephone instrument. Synonyms audible ringing, ringback tone.
Audio Channel - A means for delivering audio signals from one point to another. An audio waveform submitted to the channel input results in a similar (not necessarily identical) waveform at the channel output. The audio channel may be comprised of the following components: encoders (compressors) and decoders (decompressors), buffers, multiplexors and demultiplexors, modulators and demodulators, transmission facilities, switches, multipoint conference units, and other components necessary to achieve the desired channel characteristics.
Audio Dubbing - 1. In videotape editing, a process or technique employed to (a) enhance (e.g., remove noise from, or introduce some kind of special effect into), (b) add to, or (c) replace totally, the originally recorded audio (if any), without modifying the originally recorded video signal. 2. In audiotape editing or mixing, a process analogous to any of the above, performed (a) on a single audio channel, or (b) on one or more audio channels of a multi-track recording without modifying the other channel(s). 3. The copying of one or more audio signals from one storage medium, location, or format to another with or without modification or enhancement.
Audio-Follow-Video - A video recording, mixing or switching technique or process in which the audio signal associated with any given video signal is recorded, switched, or mixed with that video signal.
Audio Frame - A presentation unit of the audio channel; a group of consecutive audio samples. The preferred number of samples in an audio frame depends on the audio sample rate. These audio frames have no relationship to the frames designated by certain audio/speech codecs.
Audio Frequency (AF) - The band of frequencies (approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz) that, when transmitted as acoustic waves, can be heard by the normal human ear.
Audio Response Unit (ARU) - A device that provides synthesized voice responses to dual-tone multifrequency signaling input by processing calls based on (a) the call-originator input, (b) information received from a host data base, and (c) information in the incoming call, such as the time of day. Note: ARUs are used to increase the number of information calls handled and to provide consistent quality in information retrieval.
Audit - 1. To conduct an independent review and examination of system records and activities in order to test the adequacy and effectiveness of data security and data integrity procedures, to ensure compliance with established policy and operational procedures, and to recommend any necessary changes. 2. Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures, and to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures.
Audit Record Field - A field containing information regarding all entities in a transaction, and indicators of the types of processing performed by those entities.
Audit Review File - A file created by executing statements included in a computer program for the explicit purpose of providing data for auditing.
Audit Trail - 1. A record of both completed and attempted accesses and service. 2. Data in the form of a logical path linking a sequence of events, used to trace the transactions that have affected the contents of a record. 3. [In INFOSEC, a] chronological record of system activities to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of events and/or changes in an event. Note: Audit trail may apply to information in an information system (IS), to message routing in a communications system, or to the transfer of COMSEC material.
AUI - Abbreviation for attachment unit interface.
Aurora - Sporadic radiant emission from the upper atmosphere that usually occurs about the North and South magnetic poles of the Earth. Note 1: Auroras are most intense at times of intense magnetic storms caused by sunspot activity. The distribution of auroral intensity with altitude shows a pronounced maximum near 100 km above the Earth. Auroras may occasionally be observed within 40° or less of the equator. Note 2: Auroras interfere with radio communications. Note 3: In the Northern hemisphere, the aurora is called the Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights). In the Southern hemisphere, the aurora is called the Aurora Australis (Southern Lights).
Authenticate - 1. To establish, usually by challenge and response, that a transmission attempt is authorized and valid. 2. [To] verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity, or the integrity of data stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to unauthorized modification in an information system (IS), or establish the validity of a transmission. 3. A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity of a message or transmission.
Authentication - 1. [Any] Security measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission, message, or originator, or a means of verifying an individual's authorization to receive specific categories of information. 2. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 3. Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official.
Authentication Algorithm: An encryption process or tool in which the results of text encryption depend on all relevant authentication elements.
Authentication Element - A contiguous group of characters or bits that are corruption-protected by being processed by the authentication algorithm.
Authentication Exchange - A mechanism intended to ensure the identity of an entity by means of an information exchange.
Authentication Information - Information used to establish the validity of a claimed identity of an entity.
Authentication Key - A (data-encryption algorithm) key used to authenticate data in accordance with specific encryption standards.
Authentication System - [A] cryptosystem or process used for authentication.
Authenticator - 1. A symbol or group of symbols, or a series of bits, selected or derived in a prearranged manner and usually inserted at a predetermined point within a message or transmission for the purpose of attesting to the validity of the message or transmission. 2. A letter, numeral, group of letters or numerals, or any combinations of these, attesting to the authenticity of a message or transmission. 3. a means used to confirm the identity of a station, originator, or individual.
Authorization - 1. The rights granted to a user to access, read, modify, insert, or delete certain data, or to execute certain programs. 2. Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process.
Authorization Certificate - Any of several types of attribute certificates containing information used in the authorization process. Note: Authorization information may also be contained in a public key certificate, in which case that public key certificate also serves as an authorization certification
Authorized Bandwidth - 1. Authorized bandwidth is, for purposes of this Manual, the necessary bandwidth (bandwidth required for transmission and reception of intelligence) and does not include allowance for transmitter drift or Doppler shift. 2. The maximum bandwidth authorized to be used by a station as specified in the station license. This shall be occupied bandwidth or necessary bandwidth, whichever is greater. 3. The maximum width of the band of frequencies permitted to be used by a station. This is normally considered to be the necessary or occupied bandwidth, whichever is greater.
Authorized Frequency - 1. A frequency that is allocated and assigned by a competent authority to a specific user for a specific purpose. 2. The frequency, or frequency range, assigned to a station by the Commission [FCC] and specified in the instrument of authorization. See assigned frequency.
Authorized Signatory - The highest level issuer of authorization certificates in an organization. Note: Authorized signatories are designated in a signatory certificate, which is issued to an organization by an agreed signatory authority.
Authorized User - In security, a user who may, according to an organization's security policy, perform an operation.
AUTODIN - Acronym for automatic digital network. See Defense Data Network.
Auto Fax Tone (CNG ) - This tone is produced by virtually all FAX machines when it dials the receiving FAX machine’s number from memory. Older FAX machines and some current models that do not have speed-dial memory will not produce CNG. CNG is a medium-pitch tone (1100 Hz) that last 1/2 second and repeats every 3-1/2 seconds. A FAX machine will produce CNG for about 45 seconds after it dials the receiving FAX number.
Automated Attendant - An automated attendant system allows the caller to be automatically be transferred to a user's extension without the intervention of a receptionist. A receptionist can be reached by pressing 0 on most systems. There is a dial-by-name directory like 411 to find user on a system. The dial-by-name directory is usually set up last name followed by first name. Once the user ID is announced you can press # or it will automatically ring the extension. Express messaging is used when you don't want to disturb the user or are calling a guest mailbox without a phone.
A phone can be set to "Do Not Disturb" to forward all calls directly to voicemail without ringing the extension.
On some systems there is a message-only information so that a company can give directions to their office, job offerings etc. Theese mailboxes are forwarded to the receptionist after each message plays or the user can return to the main menu.
Some colleges have telephone registration where the user uses the key pad or voice response to register for courses, check for grades, etc.
Other features of automated attendant systems include transferring to another outside line, connecting two companies via wide area networking, incorporating Outlook Express to have Unified Messaging.
Automated Data Medium - Synonym machine-readable medium. - A medium capable of storing data in a form that can be accessed by an automated sensing device. Note: Examples of machine-readable media include (a) magnetic disks, cards, tapes, and drums, (b) punched cards and paper tapes, (c) optical disks, and (d) magnetic ink characters.
Automated Information System (AIS) - 1. An assembly of computer hardware, software, firmware, or any combination of these, configured to accomplish specific information-handling operations, such as communication, computation, dissemination, processing, and storage of information. 2. any equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission or reception of data and includes computer software, firmware, and hardware. Note: Included are computers, word processing systems, networks, or other electronic information handling systems, and associated equipment. 3. See information systems security.
Automated Information Systems Security - 1. Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the information processed and stored by automated information systems. Note 1: The unauthorized disclosure, modification, or destruction may be accidental or intentional. Note 2: Automated information systems security includes consideration of all hardware and software functions, characteristics and features; operational procedures; accountability procedures; and access controls at the central computer facility, remote computer, and terminal facilities; management constraints; physical structures and devices, such as computers, transmission lines, and power sources; and personnel and communications controls needed to provide an acceptable level of risk for the automated information system and for the data and information contained in the system. Automated information systems security also includes the totality of security safeguards needed to provide an acceptable protection level for an automated information system and for the data handled by an automated information system. 2. Synonym computer security.
Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS) - An automatic, integrated and interconnected maritime communications system serving ship stations on specified inland and coastal waters of the United States.
Automated Radio - A radio that can be automatically controlled by electronic devices and that requires little or no human intervention.
Automated Security Monitoring - Use of automated procedures to ensure security controls are not circumvented or the use of these tools to track actions taken by subjects suspected of misusing the information system (IS).
Automated Tactical Command and Control System - A command and control system, or part thereof, that manipulates the movement of information from source to user without human intervention. Note: In an automated tactical command and control system, automated execution of a decision without human intervention is not mandatory.
Automatic Answering - A service feature in which the called terminal automatically responds to the calling signal and the call may be established whether or not the called terminal is attended by an operator.
Automatic Callback - A service feature that permits a user, when encountering a busy condition, to instruct the system to retain the called and calling numbers and to establish the call when there is an available line. Note 1: Automatic callback may be implemented in the terminal, in the switching system, or shared between them. Note 2: Automatic callback is not the same as camp-on.
Automatic Call Distributor (ACD) - A device that distributes incoming calls to a specific group of terminals. Note: If the number of active calls is less than the number of terminals, the next call will be routed to the terminal that has been in the idle state the longest. If all terminals are busy, the incoming calls are held in a first-in-first-out queue until a terminal becomes available.
An ACD is a telephone facility that manages incoming calls and handles them based on the number called and an associated database of handling instructions. Many companies offering sales and service support use ACDs to validate callers, make outgoing responses or calls, forward calls to the right party, allow callers to record messages, gather usage statistics, balance the use of phone lines, and provide other services.
ACDs often provide some form of Automatic Customer/Caller Identification (
ACIS) such as that provided by Direct Inward Dialing (DID), Dialed Number Identification Service (DNIS), or Automatic Number Identification (ANI).
Automatic Call Processor - A device that distributes incoming calls to a specific devices. Note: If the number of active calls is more than the number of lines, the next will receive a busy signal.
Automatic Calling - Calling in which the elements of the selection signal are entered into the data network contiguously at the full data signaling rate. The selection signal is generated by the data terminal equipment. Note: A limit may be imposed by the design criteria of the network to prevent more than a permitted number of unsuccessful call attempts to the same address within a specified period.
Automatic Calling Unit (ACU) - A device that enables equipment, such as computers and card dialers, to originate calls automatically over a telecommunications network.
Automatic Coin Telephone System (ACTS) - is a public coin-operated telephone service that completes a variety of phone calls, times the calls, and collects payment without the aid of an operator.
Automatic Data Handling (ADH): 1. A generalization of automatic data processing to include the aspect of data transfer. 2. Combining data processing and data transfer.
Automatic Data Processing (ADP) - 1. An interacting assembly of procedures, processes, methods, personnel, and equipment to perform automatically a series of data processing operations on data. Note: The data processing operations may result in a change in the semantic content of the data. 2. Data processing by means of one or more devices that use common storage for all or part of a computer program, and also for all or part of the data necessary for execution of the program; that execute user-written or user-designated programs; that perform user-designated symbol manipulation, such as arithmetic operations, logic operation, or character-string manipulations; and that can execute programs that modify themselves during their execution. Note: Automatic data processing may be performed by a stand-alone unit or by several connected units. 3. Data processing largely performed by automatic means. 4. That branch of science and technology concerned with methods and techniques relating to data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE) - Any equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception, of data or information (i) by a Federal agency, or (ii) under a contract with a Federal agency which (i) requires the use of such equipment, or (ii) requires the performance of a service or the furnishing of a product which is performed or produced making significant use of such equipment. Such term includes (i) computer, (ii) ancillary equipment, (iii) software, firmware, and similar procedures, (iv) services, including support services, and (v) related resources as defined by regulations issued by the Administrator for General Services. . . . [Public Law 99-500, Title VII, Sec. 822 (a) Section 111(a) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 759(a)) revised.]
Automatic Dialing - See automatic calling unit.
Automatic Digital Network (AUTODIN) - Formerly, a worldwide data communications network of the Defense Communications System, now replaced by the Defense Switched Network (DSN).
Automatic Error Correction - See error-correcting code.
Automatic Exchange - In a telephone system, an exchange in which communications among users are effected by means of switches set in operation by the originating user equipment without human intervention at the central office or branch exchange.
Automatic Fax Switch - A device that allows a single phone line to be shared for multiple devices. Common applications include any variation of voice, a fax machine, fax/modem and/or modem(s). Incoming calls are automatically routed to the proper device(s). If the call comes in and it is a fax call, the call is automatically routed to the fax machine or fax.modem. If the call is a modem call, it is routed to the correct modem. Voice calls are routes to phone(s) and/pr answering machine. May require a security access code (SAC) in the dialing string to automatically switch to the modem. Synonym Automatic Line Sharing Device . Fax Switch , Phone Fax Switch ,
Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) - A device or circuit that maintains the frequency of an oscillator within the specified limits with respect to a reference frequency.
Automatic Function - A machine function or series of machine functions controlled by a program and carried out without assistance of an operator.
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) - A process or means by which gain is automatically adjusted in a specified manner as a function of a specified parameter, such as received signal level.
Automatic Identified Outward Dialing (AIOD) - A service feature of some switching or terminal devices that provides the user with an itemized statement of usage on directly dialed calls. Note: AIOD is facilitated by automatic number identification (ANI) equipment to provide automatic message accounting (AMA).
Automatic Line Sharing Device - A device that allows a single phone line to be shared for multiple devices. Common applications include any variation of voice, a fax machine, fax/modem and/or modem(s). Incoming calls are automatically routed to the proper device(s). If the call comes in and it is a fax call, the call is automatically routed to the fax machine or fax .modem. If the call is a modem call, it is routed to the correct modem. Voice calls are routes to phone(s) and/pr answering machine. May require a security access code (SAC) in the dialing string to automatically switch to the modem. Synonyms Automatic Fax Switch , Fax Switch , Phone Fax Switch ,
Automatic Link Establishment (ALE) - 1. In high-frequency (HF) radio, the capability of a station to make contact, or initiate a circuit, between itself and another specified radio station, without human intervention and usually under processor control. Note: ALE techniques include automatic signaling, selective calling, and automatic handshaking. Other automatic techniques that are related to ALE are channel scanning and selection, link quality analysis (LQA), polling, sounding, message store-and-forward, address protection, and anti-spoofing. 2. In HF radio, a link control system that includes automatic scanning, selective calling, sounding, and transmit channel selection using link quality analysis data. Note: Optional ALE functions include polling and the exchange of orderwire commands and messages.
Automatic Link Transfer - Automatic rerouting of the radio portion of a call for signal quality, traffic management, or other reasons.
Automatic Message Accounting (AMA) - A service feature that automatically records data regarding user-dialed calls.
Automatic Message Exchange (AME) - In an adaptive high-frequency (HF) radio network, an automated process allowing the transfer of a message from message injection to addressee reception, without human intervention. Note: Through the use of machine-addressable transport guidance information, i.e., the message header, the message is automatically routed through an on-line direct connection through single or multiple transmission media.
Automatic Message Processing System (AMPS) - Any organized assembly of resources and methods used to collect, process, and distribute messages largely by automatic means.
Automatic Number Identification (ANI) - 1. A service feature in which the directory number or equipment number of a calling station is automatically obtained. Note: ANI is used in message accounting. 2. The code that provides the billing number of the line or trunk that originated a call. 3. A system that identifies the billing account for a call. For 911 systems, the ANI identifies the calling party and may be used as a call back number.
Automatic Operation - The functioning of systems, equipment, or processes in a desired manner at the proper time under control of mechanical or electronic devices that operate without human intervention.
Automatic Personal Deregistration - The process by which a user's location registration is automatically canceled without any explicit action from the user.
Automatic Personal Registration - The process by which a user's location registration is automatically updated without any explicit action from the user.
Automatic Redial - A service feature that allows the user to dial, by depressing a single key or a few keys, the most recent telephone number dialed at that instrument. Note: Automatic redial is often associated with the telephone instrument, but may be provided by a PBX, or by the central office. Synonym last number redial.
Automatic Reload - See bootstrap.
Automatic Remote Rekeying - [In INFOSEC, a] procedure to rekey a distant crypto-equipment electronically without specific actions by the receiving terminal operator. [INFOSEC-99] Note: Automatic remote rekeying may also apply to non-crypto devices.
Automatic Remote Reprogramming and Rekeying - The procedure by which distant equipment is reprogrammed or rekeyed electronically without specific actions by the receiving terminal.
Automatic Repeat-Request (ARQ) - See ARQ.
Automatic Ringdown Circuit - A circuit providing priority telephone service, typically for key personnel; the circuit is activated when the telephone handset is removed from the cradle causing a ringing signal to be sent to the distant unit(s). See verified off-hook.
Automatic Route Selection (ARS) - Electronic or mechanical selection and routing of outgoing calls without human intervention.
Automatic Secure Voice Communications Network (AUTOSEVOCOM) - A worldwide, switched, secure voice network developed to fulfill DOD long-haul, secure voice requirements.
Automatic Sequential Connection - A service feature in which the terminals at each of a set of specified addresses are automatically connected, in a predetermined sequence, to a single terminal at a specified address.
Automatic Signaling Service - Synonym hotline.
Automatic Sounding - The testing of selected channels or paths by providing a very brief beacon-like identifying broadcast that may be used by other stations to evaluate connectivity, propagation, and availability, and to identify known working channels for possible later use for communications or calling. Note 1: Automatic soundings are primarily intended to increase the efficiency of the automatic link establishment (ALE) function, thereby increasing system throughput. Note 2: Sounding information is used for identifying the specific channel to be used for a particular ALE connectivity attempt.
Automatic Switching System - 1. In data communications, a switching system in which all the operations required to execute the three phases of information-transfer transactions are automatically executed in response to signals from a user end-instrument. Note: In an automatic switching system, the information-transfer transaction is performed without human intervention, except for initiation of the access phase and the disengagement phase by a user. 2. In telephony, a system in which all the operations required to set up, supervise, and release connections required for calls are automatically performed in response to signals from a calling device.
Automatic Voice Network (AUTOVON) - Formerly, the principal long-haul, unsecure voice communications network within the Defense Communications System, now replaced by the Defense Switched Network (DSN).
Automation - 1. The implementation of processes by automatic means. 2. The investigation, design, development, and application of methods of rendering processes automatic, self-moving, or self-controlling. 3. The conversion of a procedure, a process, or equipment to automatic operation.
Autonomous System - Internet (TCP/IP) terminology for a collection of gateways (routers) that fall under one administrative entity and that cooperate using a common interior gateway protocol (IGP). [Bahorsky] Note: Routers pertaining to different autonomous systems must agree on a common exterior gateway protocol in order to communicate with each other effectively.
Auto-Reply - In e-mail systems, a message sent automatically upon receipt of incoming e-mail. Note: Auto-replies are used to acknowledge delivery of e-mail and to provide receipts for e-mail messages.
AUTOSEVOCOM - Acronym for Automatic Secure Voice Communications Network.
AUTOVON - Acronym for Automatic Voice Network. Superseded by Defense Switched Network.
Auxiliary Operation - An offline operation performed by equipment not under control of the processing unit.
Auxiliary Power - Electric power that is provided by an alternate source and that serves as backup for the primary power source at the station main bus or prescribed sub-bus. Note 1: An offline unit provides electrical isolation between the primary power source and the critical technical load whereas an online unit does not. Note 2: A Class A power source is a primary power source, i.e., a source that assures an essentially continuous supply of power. Note 3: Types of auxiliary power services include Class B, a standby power plant to cover extended outages of the order of days; Class C, a 10-to-60-second quick-start unit to cover short-term outages of the order of hours; and Class D, an uninterruptible non-break unit using stored energy to provide continuous power within specified voltage and frequency tolerances.
Auxiliary Storage - 1. Storage that is available to a processor only through its input / output channels. 2. In a computer, any storage that is not internal memory, i.e., is not random access memory (RAM). Note: Examples of auxiliary storage media are magnetic diskettes, optical disks including CD ROM, and magnetic tape cassettes.
Availability - 1. The degree to which a system, subsystem, or equipment is operable and in a committable state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown, i.e., a random, time. Note 1: The conditions determining operability and committability must be specified. Note 2: Expressed mathematically, availability is 1 minus the unavailability. 2. The ratio of (a) the total time a functional unit is capable of being used during a given interval to (b) the length of the interval. Note 1: An example of availability is 100/168 if the unit is capable of being used for 100 hours in a week. Note 2: Typical availability objectives are specified in decimal fractions, such as 0.9998. 3. Timely, reliable access to data and information services for authorized users.
Available Line - 1. In voice, video, or data communications, a circuit between two points that is ready for service, but is in the idle state. 2. In facsimile transmission, the portion of the scanning line that can be specifically used for image signals. Synonym useful line.
Available State - A state where a (bidirectional or unidirectional) service is usable. Note: Each direction of a service is assumed to be in the available state unless a transition to the unavailable state is observed without a subsequent transition to the available state. In this standard the transitions between the available and unavailable states are: (a) transition to the unavailable state occurs at the beginning of 10 consecutive severely errored seconds (SES); (b) transition to the available state occurs at the beginning of 10 consecutive seconds none of which is an SES.
Available Time - From the point of view of a user, the time during which a functional unit can be used. Note: From the point of view of operating and maintenance personnel, the available time is the same as the uptime, i.e., the time during which a functional unit is fully operational.
Avalanche Multiplication - A current-multiplying phenomenon that occurs in a semiconductor photodiode that is reverse-biased just below its breakdown voltage. Note: Under such a condition, photocurrent carriers, i.e., electrons, are swept across the junction with sufficient energy to ionize additional bonds, creating additional electron-hole pairs in a regenerative action.
Avalanche Photodiode (APD) - A photodiode that operates with a reverse-bias voltage that causes the primary photocurrent to undergo amplification by cumulative multiplication of charge carriers. Note: As the reverse-bias voltage increases toward the breakdown, hole-electron pairs are created by absorbed photons. An avalanche effect occurs when the hole-electron pairs acquire sufficient energy to create additional pairs when the incident photons collide with the ions, i.e., the holes and electrons. Thus, a signal gain is achieved.
Avatar - An interactive representation of a human in a virtual reality environment.
Average Picture Level (APL) - In video systems, the average level of the picture signal during active scanning time integrated over a frame period; defined as a percentage of the range between blanking and reference white level.
Average Rate of Transmission - Synonym effective transmission rate.
AVI (.avi) - Abbreviation for audio video interleaved. A file-name extension used to indicate a compressed video file in the AVI standard for a common operating system. Note: This file format for digital video and audio compression indicates that (a) the audio and video data are stored in alternate blocks, and (b) the file format is cross-platform compatible, allowing .avi video files to be played under various operating systems.
AVK - Abbreviation for audio video kernel. Digital video interface (. dvi) software designed for playing motion video and audio across several different varieties of hardware and operating systems.
Avoidance Routing - The assignment of a circuit path to avoid certain critical or trouble-prone circuit nodes.
AVSS - Abbreviation for audio-video support system. A digital video interface system software (for DOS) that plays motion video and audio.
AWG - Abbreviation for American wire gauge. A standard system for measuring and classifying the thickness of wire conductors; also referred to as the "Brown and Sharpe (B & S)" wire gauge.
AWGN - Abbreviation for additive white gaussian noise. See white noise.
Axial Propagation Constant - In an optical fiber, the propagation constant evaluated along the optical axis of the fiber in the direction of transmission. Note: The real part of the axial propagation constant is the attenuation constant. The imaginary part is the phase constant.
Axial Ratio - Of an electromagnetic wave having elliptical polarization, the ratio of the magnitudes of the major axis and the minor axis of the ellipse described by the electric field vector.
Axial Ray - A light ray that travels along the optical axis.
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